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Breastfeeding Review - Table of contents index

 

2009 * Vol 17 No. 1 March * Vol 17 No 2 July * Vol 17 No 3 November
2008 * Vol 16 No. 1 March * Vol 16 No 2 July * Vol 16 No 3 November
2007 * Vol 15 No. 1 March * Vol 15 No 2 July * Vol 15 No 3 November
2006 * Vol 14 No. 1 March * Vol 14 No 2 July * Vol 14 No 3 November
2005 * Vol 13 No. 1 March * Vol 13 No 2 July * Vol 13 No 3 November
2004 * Vol 12 No. 1 March * Vol 12 No 2 July * Vol 12 No 3 November
2003 * Vol 11 No. 1 March * Vol 11 No 2 July * Vol 11 No 3 November
2002 * Vol 10 No. 1 March * Vol 10 No 2 July * Vol 10 No 3 November
2001 * Vol 9 No. 1 March * Vol 9 No 2 July * Vol 9 No. 3 November
2000 * Vol 8 No. 1 March * Vol 8 No 2 July * Vol 8 No 3 November
1999 * Vol 7 No 1 March * Vol 7 No 2 July * Vol 7 No 3 November
1998* Vol 6 No 1 May *Vol 6 No 2 August
1997 * Vol 5 No 1 May * Vol 5 No 2 November
1996 * Vol 4 No 1 May * Vol 4 No 2 November
1995 * Vol 3 No 1 April * Vol 3 No 2 November
1994 * Vol 2 No 9 May * Vol 2 No 10 November
1993 * Vol 2 No 7 May * Vol 2 No 8 November
1992 * Vol 2 No 5 May * Vol 2 No 6 November
1991 * Vol 2 No 3 July * Vol 2 No 4 November
1990 * Vol 2 No 1 May * Vol 2 No 2 November
1989 * Vol 1 No 14 May * Vol 1 No 15 November
1988 * Vol 1 No 12 May * Vol 1 No 13 November
1987 * Vol 1 No 10 May * Vol 1 No 11 November
1986 * Vol 1 No 8 May * Vol 1 No 9 November
1985 * Vol 1 No 6 August * Vol 1 No 7 November/December
1984 * Vol 1 No 4 June * Vol 1 No 5 December
1983 * Vol 1 No 2 March * Vol 1 No 3 November
1983 * Vol 1 No 1 August

 

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Volume 17 No 3 2009

  • When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively Grace V Agrasada, Elisabeth Kylberg
    Abstract
    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (p<0.001). Exclusive breastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(3): 5-10
    Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, low birth weight
  • A study of in-hospital midwifery practices that affect breastfeeding outcomes Helen McAllister, Sue Bradshaw, Gail Ross-Adjie
    Abstract
    Whilst breastfeeding is undoubtedly best for both mother and baby, many factors influence a woman's decision about whether to start and when to cease feeding. This study sought to determine which variables, influenced by midwifery practice, may influence the length of breastfeeding. Mothers who had given birth to a live baby at a Perth private hospital were invited to complete a validated, anonymous questionnaire asking about their breastfeeding experience, both in hospital and following discharge. The response rate was 50% (n = 266). Although 94% of women were breastfeeding on discharge from hospital, this rate reduced to 59% at 6 months and 21% at 12 months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 7.4 months (SD ± 4.1). Of five variables thought to be associated with an increased length of breastfeeding, only two were found to be statistically significant: whether a mother could independently attach the baby on discharge (p = 0.003) and whether or not artificial baby milk was administered in hospital (p<0.001). In order to improve breastfeeding rates, education for both mothers and midwives must be targeted towards ensuring mothers are able to independently attach their baby on discharge from hospital. The findings also support the discouragement of artificial feeding unless there is a medical indication or the mother has made an informed request.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(3): 11-15
    Keywords: bottle feeding, breastfeeding, education, infant, lactation
  • Psychological stress and breast diseases during lactation Michael Abou-Dakn, Ute Schäfer-Graf, Achim Wöchel
    Abstract
    Termination of breastfeeding in the first six months after childbirth is frequently caused by breastfeeding-related diseases and problems of the breast such as pain, milk stasis or mastitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between psychological stress and the occurrence of breastfeeding associated disorders. In a prospective cohort study of 379 primiparous women without breast anomalies or diseases, psychometric data were collected from participants between the confirmation of the pregnancy and one year post-partum. Primarily, standardised questionnaires (PSQ, WHO QoL and F-SOZU K22) were used for data analysis while additional data was gathered in follow-up interviews. The subgroup analysis showed a significant relationship between stress and breastfeeding-related diseases. Women with pain, cracked nipples, milk stasis or mastitis reported a higher stress level than women without breast problems. Additionally, the majority of women with breast problems and increased psychological stress gave up breastfeeding sooner and, in contrast to the group without problems, indicated significantly more frequently that the milk quantity was insufficient. Breast diseases during lactation are associated with higher levels of psychological stress. Further studies are needed to examine the causes of the higher stress in order to develop strategies to prolong breastfeeding duration.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(3): 19-26
    Keywords: breastfeeding, lactation, mastitis, milk stasis, stress
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Volume 17 No 2 2009

  • Why calcium in breastmilk is independent of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D Jacqueline Kent, Peter Arthur, Leon Mitoulas, Peter Hartmann
    Abstract
    Adequate calcium intake is vital for infant health, and some cases of rickets have been associated with a low concentration of calcium in breastmilk. The concentration of calcium in breastmilk has been shown to vary widely both between mothers, and over the course of lactation. To address potential concerns about the adequacy of calcium intake for infants who are exclusively breastfed, we discuss the factors likely to be affecting the concentration of calcium in breastmilk. We review and provide new evidence for a physicochemical model of the interactions of calcium with other components of breastmilk, particularly phosphate, citrate and casein. A proposed mechanism for the control of the concentration of calcium in milk is described that highlights the influence of the concentrations of citrate and casein. Understanding these interactions clarifies why the concentration of calcium in breastmilk is not affected by manipulations of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(2): 5-11
    Keywords: calcium, human, milk, vitamin D
  • Factors associated with early breastfeeding cessation in Frankston, Victoria: a descriptive study Carole Gilmour, Helen Hall, Meredith McIntyre, Lorraine Gillies, Bernadette Harrison
    Abstract
    Current exclusive breastfeeding rates in Victoria do not meet World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standards. This study describes the reasons for early cessation of breastfeeding from the perspectives of the mothers, midwives and maternal and child health (M&CH) nurses in Frankston, Victoria. Interviews were conducted with women who had ceased to breastfeed within three weeks of birth. Midwives who regularly worked in the home visiting program and M&CH nurses participated in focus groups. The main aim was to describe local factors associated with early breastfeeding cessation. Themes identified included: midwifery assistance; knowledge, expectations and reality; social influences; influence of health professionals. These findings support previous evidence of factors that inhibit establishment of breastfeeding and suggest that failure to successfully establish breastfeeding is complex. Collaboration between health and social services, health professionals and community is required to improve the breastfeeding experience for women and their babies.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(2): 13-19
    Keywords: breastfeeding cessation, community, women's experience
  • Australian Breastfeeding Association's free-call Breastfeeding Helpline Nerida May
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(2): 21-22
  • Is 6 months still the best for exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of solids? A literature review with consideration to the risk of the development of allergies Joy Anderson, Kathryn Malley, Robynne Snell
    Abstract
    Health professionals advising mothers on the introduction of solid foods to infants need evidence-based guidelines. A literature review on this topic was undertaken to examine the current international recommendations of expert bodies and evidence-based research published since 2003. Particular reference in this review is made to the timing of introducing food allergens and the risk of development of allergy in the child. Recommendations in developed countries of reducing this risk by avoidance of allergenic foods until the child is of varying ages past 6 months have been challenged by recent population studies. Where the risk of allergy is a key consideration, currently-available research suggests that introducing solids at 4-6 months may result in the lowest allergy risk. When all aspects of health are taken into account, the recommended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and age of introduction of solids were confirmed to be 6 months, but no later.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(2): 23-31
    Keywords: allergy, complementary feeding, exclusive breastfeeding, guidelines, infant feeding, introduction to solids
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Volume 17 No 1 2009

  • Time to step up to the plate: adopting the WHO 2006 growth curves for US infants Frank R Greer
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(1): 5-7
  • Mothers' experiences of sharing breastfeeding or breastmilk: co-feeding in Australia 1978-2008 Virginia Thorley
    Abstract
    While the concept of breastfeeding in contemporary Western culture is of a mother breastfeeding her own baby or babies, others have replaced the mother as provider of breastmilk, for a variety of reasons, through most periods of human existence. Existing policies for the sharing of this bodily fluid, milk, appear to have been written without the benefit of a detailed examination of the actual experiences of the mothers and babies involved. This study attempts to fill this information gap by investigating the sharing of breastfeeding or expressed breastmilk by Australian women in a recent thirty-year period, 1978-2008. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers' experiences of sharing breastfeeding or human milk including: the circumstances in which this bodily fluid was freely shared; what screening process, if any, was used before the milk of another mother was accepted; the mothers' feelings about the experience; the reported attitudes of others; and the children's behaviour when put to the breast of someone other than the mother. The underpinning reason for the sharing of breastfeeding or breastmilk was the desire of mothers to provide human milk to their babies, exclusively, including while they were absent or temporarily unable to breastfeed. Most mothers were selective about those with whom they would share breastfeeding or breastmilk.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(1): 9-18
    Keywords: Australia, breastfeeding, cross-nursing, expressed breastmilk
  • Mothers' experiences with breastfeeding management and support: a quality improvement study Irene Sarasua, Christina Clausen, Valerie Frunchak
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of mothers with regard to the breastfeeding support and management provided by healthcare professionals on an acute care postpartum unit in a multiethnic obstetrical referral center in Montreal, Canada. The study survey was largely based on the UNICEF/World Health Organization's (1998) ten steps to successful breastfeeding. The convenience sample included 60 recently-delivered mothers. Findings indicated that primiparous women and women who delivered by caesarean section consistently received more information about breastfeeding management than multiparous women and women who delivered vaginally. However, the study does suggest that all women, regardless of parity or type of delivery, have information and support needs related to breastfeeding. A total of 29 mothers (67%), who intended to breastfeed exclusively, supplemented with artificial baby milk. Of these mothers, 16 (55%) stated 'milk insufficiency' as their primary reasons for supplementing. Overall, respondents perceived healthcare professionals to be encouraging of breastfeeding, and 48 mothers (80%) were 'moderately' to 'very' satisfied with the breastfeeding education and support received. These findings suggest that overall adherence to breastfeeding best practices in the current study hospital are below targets set by the World Health Organization for 'Baby Friendly' status. Results from the study can be used to target areas for improvement.
    Breastfeeding Review: 17(1): 19-27
    Keywords: artificial milk supplementation, Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, breastfeeding, patient education, ten steps
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Volume 16 No 3 2008

  • Why the new WHO growth charts are dangerous to breastfeeding Colin Binns, Jennifer James, Mi Kyung Lee
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(3): 5-7
  • The new WHO Child Growth Standards: possible effects on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months Adriano Cattaneo, Márta Guóth-Gumberger
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(3): 9-12
  • The WHO Child Growth Standards and current Western growth references TJ Cole
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(3): 13-16
  • The benefits of phone support and home visits: an evaluation of the City of Kingston's Breastfeeding Support Service Karen Coffield
    Abstract
    This paper presents an evaluation of the City of Kingston Breastfeeding Support Service that was performed in 2006. The evaluation utilised a mail-out questionnaire designed to investigate mothers' breastfeeding expectations, experiences, issues and support received, in addition to their experience of using the Service. Seventy-seven percent of mothers contacted the service for support due primarily to problems with positioning and attachment, nipple pain or mastitis. Other reasons were also cited, reflecting that it takes time and experience for women to learn to breastfeed and to develop an understanding of their lactation. The study found that on discharge from hospital, 59% of mothers were fully breastfeeding; this figure decreased to 32% at the time of contacting the service, but increased to 42% two weeks after contacting the service. Satisfaction with both the model of service and the support received was very high. Mothers were able to feel more comfortable with their breastfeeding (75%), to breastfeed for longer (59%) and with more confidence (71%) and greater knowledge (68%) about breastfeeding lactation. The majority of mothers (96%) reported they would contact the service again if they needed further breastfeeding advice and support.
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(3): 17-21
    Keywords: breastfeeding, breastfeeding support
  • Infant feeding and professional advice in the first half of the 20th century in Greece Fani Pechlivani, Antonia-Leda Matalas, Chryssa Bakoula
    Abstract
    This study aims to assess the role that health professionals and State policies played in shaping breastfeeding practices and attitudes in Greece during the first half of the 20th century. Original texts were used including those concerned with breastfeeding traditions, health professionals' attitudes to breastfeeding, infant feeding patterns, partial breastfeeding, artificial feeding and State policies for the promotion of breastfeeding. Content analysis was used and breastfeeding rates were considered. In the first two decades of the 20th century, most Greek women breastfed their children, as advised by other experienced women. In the succeeding decades, health professionals and policy makers wrote books and articles praising breastfeeding albeit stressing the nursing mothers' ignorance of sanitary measures. Many health professionals were influenced by trends in developed countries and advocated novel infant feeding practices. Consequently, full breastfeeding was not promoted.
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(3): 23-28
    Keywords: breastfeeding, bottle feeding, health professionals, Greece, twentieth century
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Volume 16 No 2 2008

  • The power of obstinacy Elisabet Helsing
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(2): 5-7
  • Who supports breastfeeding? Jacqueline Clifford, Ellen McIntyre
    Abstract
    'Breastfeeding is best for baby' is the view supported by many health organisations including Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and the World Health Organization (WH)). This literature review of both quantitative and qualitative studies was conducted to determine who supports women to breastfeed successfully in the current environment. Results indicated that fathers, other family members and friends can have a significant impact in supporting breastfeeding if they are positive about breastfeeding and have the skills to support breastfeeding. Health professionals are more effective in their support if their attitude to breastfeeding is positive and they have appropriate knowledge and skills to help the breastfeeding mother, something that is often lacking in their training. Peer counsellors and breastfeeding support groups are very effective but only if women access them. Employers and the community know about the benefits of breastfeeding; however, they do not provide much support for breastfeeding. For breastfeeding to be better supported, family and friends need to be more aware of the importance of breastfeeding and how to help mothers; health professionals need more effective training in supporting breastfeeding; peer counsellors and breastfeeding support groups need to be more accessible to breastfeeding women; and employers and the community need to be more breastfeeding friendly.
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(2): 9-19
    Keywords: breastfeeding support, community, employers, family, friend, health professionals, peers
  • Make or break. Mothers' experiences of returning to paid employment and breastfeeding: a New Zealand study Deborah Payne, Louise James
    Abstract
    When mothers return to paid employment, which more and more are doing, they often give up breastfeeding. This qualitative study aims to describe New Zealand mothers' experiences of returning to paid employment and infant feeding. Thirty-four mothers who had given birth between 2003 and 2005 were interviewed regarding their experiences and decisions about returning to paid employment following the birth of their child. The presence or absence of the factors of space, time, and support emerged as key factors in the mothers' perception of their ability to continue to breastfeed on their return to paid employment. Employers need to make changes to the workplace environment to encourage and support breastfeeding. But societal attitudes also need to change to become more supportive and positive of breastfeeding workers.
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(2): 21-27
    Keywords: breastfeeding, infant feeding, New Zealand, work
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Volume 16 No 1 2008

  • Long-term breastfeeding: changing attitudes and overcoming challenges Karleen Gribble
    Abstract
    The experiences of 107 Australian women who were breastfeeding a child two years or older were gathered via a written questionnaire with open-ended questions. Eighty-seven percent of women had not originally intended to breastfeed long-term and many had initially felt disgust for breastfeeding beyond infancy. Mothers changed their opinion about long-term breastfeeding as they saw their child enjoy breastfeeding, as their knowledge about breastfeeding increased and as they were exposed to long-term breastfeeding role models. It was common for mothers to be shocked the first time they saw a non-infant breastfeed but this exposure was also a part of the process by which they came to consider continuing to breastfeed themselves. Women often found long-term breastfeeding role models as well as information and moral support for breastfeeding continuance within a peer breastfeeding support organisation (the Australian Breastfeeding Association). Previous breastfeeding experiences had assisted women in their current breastfeeding relationship. Mothers had overcome many challenges in order to continue breastfeeding and breastfeeding was sometimes discontinuous, with children weaning from days to years before resuming breastfeeding. This study suggests that postnatal interventions may be successful in increasing breastfeeding duration. Such interventions might include: continuing provision of breastfeeding information throughout the lactation period, facilitation of exposure to long-term breastfeeding, and referral to peer breastfeeding support organisations.
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(1): 5-15
    Keywords: extended breastfeeding, peer breastfeeding support, weaning
  • Alcohol, pregnancy and breastfeeding: a comparison of the 1995 and 2001 National Health Survey data Roslyn Giglia, Colin Binns
    Abstract
    Alcohol enters breastmilk by passive diffusion and levels are reflected in maternal blood within 30 to 60 minutes of ingestion. If not timed appropriately, drinking alcohol throughout the period of lactation can negatively impact on lactation performance and the mental development of the infant. The aim of this study was to explore the drinking patterns of pregnant, lactating and other Australian women of child bearing age using the 1995 and 2001 National Health Survey Confidentialised Unit Record Files. Alcohol consumption was categorised according to Guideline 11 from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) current Australian Alcohol Guidelines, which state that if pregnant or lactating women choose to drink, over a week, they should have fewer than 7 standard drinks. Despite a low intake by most pregnant and lactating women from both surveys, approximately 16.4% and 1.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 7.0-23.2) of pregnant women from the 1995 and 2001 NHS respectively, and 13% and 16.8% (95% CI -6.5--1.1) of lactating mothers from the 1995 NHS and 2001 NHS respectively, were drinking above this national guideline. There were significantly more pregnant women in the 1995 NHS, and lactating women in the 2001 NHS, exceeding this recommendation. Pregnancy and lactation are vulnerable times of infant growth and development. There is a definite need in Australia for improved antenatal, and maternal and child health programs that address this significant public health issue.
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(1): 17-24
    Keywords: alcohol, Australian women, breastfeeding, pregnancy
  • Sharing breastmilk: wet nursing, cross-nursing, and milk donations Virginia Thorley
    Abstract
    Wet nursing and cross-feeding both involve the breastfeeding of a child by someone other than the mother. Wet nursing involves a woman who is not the social equal of the employer, is never reciprocal, and is normally for payment. Cross-feeding (also 'cross-nursing') is the informal sharing of breastfeeding between equals, and is usually unpaid and may be reciprocal. Community attitudes in the late-20th and early-21st centuries are distrustful of this practice, though satisfaction is reported by the women involved in sharing breastfeeding. Community unease has included feelings of revulsion, rationalized by concern about the transmission of infections. Yet recently there have been sporadic feature articles in the print media reporting instances of, and opinions, on these practices. This review article explores the sharing of breastfeeding, principally in Australia, and provides an historical context for concerns about transmission of infection. These issues will also be discussed in relation to human milk banking.
    Breastfeeding Review: 16(1): 25-29
    Keywords: breastfeeding, cross-nursing, human milk banking, wet nursing
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Volume 15 No 3 2007

  • The bioactive nature of human breastmilk Kristin ME Piper, Clare A Berry, Mark D Cregan
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(3): 5-10
  • All night long: understanding the world of infant sleep Lauren Porter
    Abstract
    An understanding of the complex physiological, neurological and psychological world of the infant is important in order to provide recommendations about the sensitive and consistent care needed for optimal development. However, when it comes to the subject of infant sleep, professional and lay resources are often based on misinformation and misunderstanding of developmental stages and needs. In order to provide a holistic and scientific foundation for understanding infant sleep, this paper outlines normal infant sleep mechanisms, development and patterns as defined by the literature. Biopsychological data is also presented to demonstrate the study of infant stress, attachment and caregiving routines used to engage infants in sleep. This information can be used as a guideline for determining which sleep choices and approaches are healthy for infants and those which discourage optimal development and leave infants and families at risk.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(3): 11-15
    Keywords: attachment, infant sleep, infant stress, neurology, sleep routines
  • A systematic review of measures assessing mothers' knowledge, attitudes, confidence and satisfaction towards breastfeeding Julie Chambers, Rhona McInnes, Pat Hoddinott, Elizabeth Alder
    Abstract
    In order to support breastfeeding interventions, there is a need for objective, reliable, valid and sensitive measures of factors related to breastfeeding. Publications on the development and testing of tools measuring mothers' knowledge, attitudes, confidence or self-efficacy and/or satisfaction towards breastfeeding were systematically reviewed. Twenty-two papers evaluating 13 self-report measures matched our selection criteria, and were critically appraised by two independent reviewers. All scales were tested with pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers. The 13 measures varied markedly in ease of completion and cultural appropriateness and none reached our highest level of evidence grading. Four of the measures had sufficient evidence to support their use, including the Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tool, the Modified Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. There has been a tendency to develop new measures rather than evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of existing measures, particularly in different populations.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(3): 17-25
    Keywords: breastfeeding, measures, psychometric testing, psychosocial variables, systematic review
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Volume 15 No 2 2007

  • Influences that affect Maori women breastfeeding Marewa Glover, Harangi Manaena-Biddle, John Waldon
    Abstract
    This project aimed to identify the factors that influence Maori women's decision to breastfeed or not. During 2004-2005, a diverse demographic of Maori women and family members was selectively recruited from within a major urban area, small towns, and rural areas. Thirty women who had cared for a newborn within the previous three years were interviewed, alone or together with other family members. All participants self-identified as Maori and were over 16. Women who had artificially fed their babies were underrepresented. Most of the participants had breastfed and their determination to breastfeed was strong.
    This research proposes a new model for understanding how Maori women are diverted from breastfeeding. Five influences were identified: interruption to a breastfeeding culture; difficulty establishing breastfeeding within the first six weeks; poor or insufficient professional support; perception of inadequate milk supply; and returning to work. These influences occur in a temporal sequence and highlight opportunities for intervention. Factors that encourage breastfeeding are also discussed.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(2): 5-14
    Keywords: breastfeeding, indigenous, infant feeding, Maori
  • Creating a breastfeeding culture: a comparison of breastfeeding practices in Australia and Iran Mitra Zareai, Maxine L O'Brien, Anthony B Fallon
    Abstract
    Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants and has a unique biological and emotional influence on the health of both mother and child. However, despite the well documented health benefits of breastfeeding, most Australian women discontinue breastfeeding before the recommended time. This study attempts to identify variables influencing breastfeeding practices in Australia including: a comparatively inadequate national program for the promotion of breastfeeding; less uptake of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative; less supported return to paid work; and cultural issues.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(2): 15-20
    Keywords: Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding initiation, culture, working mother
  • An analysis of Australia's changing context: the breastfeeding mother, motivation and free community-based education Sue Smith
    Abstract
    Breastfeeding promotion, support, and education by volunteer peer activists have improved breastfeeding duration rates in various low socio-economic populations. In Australia however, breastfeeding rates at six months are low despite peer support, as provided by the Australian Breastfeeding Association, being available to mothers since 1964. Immigration over the last 40 years has changed the identity of Australian mothers ad altered the country's fertility rate. The discourses that are currently circulated to motivate the breastfeeding mother are reviewed and questioned.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(2): 21-25
    Keywords: breastfeeding, mothers' identity, motivation, peer support

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Volume 15 No 1 2007

  • Proteins in human milk María José López Álvarez
    Abstract
    The human baby is born extremely immature, with its major organs and immune system not fully developed. For its survival, the infant depends on an extraordinarily well-adapted evolutionary strategy shared by all mammals: breastfeeding. But what does milk contain that makes it so essential for the newborn and how does it provide immunity, nutrition, and a source for optimal growth? Human milk is a very complex living fluid which comprises proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, cells and other biologically important components. These milk components interact synergistically with each other and their environment (the infant's gut) at a biomolecular level with the final result being that breastmilk feeds and protects the newborn. This article summarises the key characteristics of breastmilk proteins and describes their functions as critical molecules conferring human milk with its diverse bioactive properties. Also presented are some of the factors which have an influence on the quantity and quality of breastmilk proteins.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(1): 5-16
    Keywords: biofactors, breastfeeding, breastmilk composition, proteins
  • Ethical responsibilities of the Australian media in the representations of infant feeding Nicole Bridges
    Abstract
    Despite the fact that human milk is the ideal food for human babies, many Australian babies are still weaned sooner than the World Health Organization guidelines recommend. Australian mothers want to breastfeed - and initially do so. However, there is a rapid decline in the percentage of babies being offered breastmilk as newborns compared to six months old. Data collected in 2004 indicated that although 90% of newborn infants in NSW were put to the breast, or offered expressed breastmilk, at least once, only 77% of infants were receiving at least some breastmilk regularly at the end of their first month. By six months of age only 4.6% of babies in NSW were being exclusively breastfed. This paper aims to analyse some of the reasons women in Australia prematurely wean their infants. Particular emphasis will be given to the representation of infant feeding in the media, how consumers use this information to make decisions about infant feeding, and the ethical responsibilities of said media in their portrayal of infant feeding.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(1): 17-21
    Keywords: breastfeeding, breasts, ethics, media
  • The contribution of infant food marketing to the obesogenic environment in Australia Julie Smith
    Abstract
    Obesity has been growing rapidly among both children and adult Australians in recent decades, raising concern at the associated chronic disease burden, and generating debate over the extent of individual versus government responsibility. This paper briefly reviews recent scientific evidence on links between poor early life nutrition and obesity in later life, which suggests that artificial baby milk rather than breastfeeding in infancy is associated with a 30-50% higher likelihood of later life obesity. It then presents data on long-term trends in breastfeeding in Australia and on consumption of infant milk products since 1939. Evidence is also presented of increased marketing and promotion of breastmilk substitutes form the mid 1950s, including through the healthcare system, associated with the emergence of increased competition I the Australian infant food industry. This collaborative marketing effort by industry and health professionals in turn contributed importantly to the sharp decline in breastfeeding from the mid 1950s. As a consequence, most Australians born since 1955 were exposed to artificial baby milk in early infancy. A substantial proportion of Australian infants are still partially fed with artificial baby milk in the first 12 months of life. The example of infant food highlights that the healthcare system and the food industry, and not just individual mothers; choices, have contributed to poor infant nutrition and obesity trends in Australia. Redressing healthcare system and industry practices to restore a supportive environment for breastfeeding is thus argued to be a necessary element of the public health response to the current obesity problem.
    Breastfeeding Review: 15(1): 23-35
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Volume 14 No 3 2006

  • Trends in the expression of breastmilk 1993-2003 CW Binns, NN Win, Y Zhao and JA Scott
    Abstract
    The expression of breastmilk is an important strategy to enable mothers to continue exclusive breastfeeding. In some situations, for health or convenience, expressed breastmilk is required and infants fed this way still fall within the definition of exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to document the changes in rates of breastmilk expression between the first Perth Infant Feeding Study (PIFS I) in 1992-93 and PIFS II in 2002-03. The proportion of mothers expressing breastmilk peaked in the first six weeks, at 38% for PIFS I and 69% for PIFS II. The proportion of mothers who had expressed breastmilk had almost doubled in the decade between studies. The proportion of mothers expressing declined to about 28% of mothers at 22 weeks for PIFS II and slightly less in PIFS I. Breastmilk expression is a very useful skill to allow mothers to exclusively breastfeed until six months and should be taught to all mothers.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(3): 5-9
    Keywords: breastfeeding, breastmilk, expression of breastmilk, infant feeding
  • Expressing and storing colostrum antenatally for use in the newborn period Suzanne G Cox
    Abstract
    Colostrum is universally acknowledged as the perfect first food for infants. Oxytocin is the hormone of both labour and lactation but the literature shows that it does not always induce labour. A review of the custom of expressing antenatally by all women is followed by the maternal and infant medical reasons for expressing and storing colostrum. A suggested regime for expressing and storage of colostrum during pregnancy is included with advice about skin-to-skin contact in the first twenty-four hours to maximize breastmilk output in the long term.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(3): 11-16
    Keywords: antenatal expression, breast hypoplasia, breastmilk, breast reduction, colostrum, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, oxytocin, polycystic ovarian disease, tandem nursing.
  • Ulcerative colitis, pregnancy, prenatal expression and breastfeeding Catherine Barlow
    Abstract
    I have been encouraged to share my breastfeeding experience, and in doing so I hope that it might help those in similar circumstances to make decisions, and also be of interest to health professionals working in lactation. I was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis at 28 years of age. This chronic inflammation of the colon is manifested by abdominal pain, painful diarrhea (sometimes with blood and mucous), weight loss and tiredness.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(3): 17-19
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  • A review of human milk banking and public health policy in Australia Roslyn J Lording
    Abstract
    Breastmilk is the perfect food for human infants. It is markedly different from, and uniquely superior to, artificial baby milk. Human milk banks are services which collect, screen, process and distribute donated breastmilk. Recipients are generally ill and premature infants whose mothers are unable to breastfeed them. This review of human milk banking in Australian public health policy draws from local and international research. The history of human milk banking and contemporary Australian policies, pertaining to breastfeeding and milk banking, are examined. Human milk banking is noted to be largely invisible from national breastfeeding policies. The barriers to establishing human milk banks in the Australian context are explored. Strategies which have helped generate support for human milk banking are discussed. International research has demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of banked donor milk. It is time for human milk banking to become an integral component of Australian breastfeeding policies, viewed as one of several initiatives to protect and support breastfeeding.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(3): 21-30
    Keywords: artificial baby milk, breastmilk, donor milk, human milk banking, public health policy
  • Book Reviews
  • Video Reviews
  • Research Summaries

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Volume 14 No 2 2006

  • 'And not a drop to drink' - why water is harmful for newborns Helen G Williams
    Abstract
    Breastmilk is a species-specific food, that is, milk made by human mothers for human infants, and thus is the only natural fluid appropriate for the newborn human. There is a plethora of information available discussing the dangers of water supplementation to babies. This article aims to collate the more recent research papers. Fully breastfed babies do not require water, even in the hottest weather. The dangers of newborn water intoxication, risk of reduction in breastmilk supply and early weaning as well as not following the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding's step six, are discussed. The impact of the attitude of and information from influential persons in the mother's life is also noted.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(2): 5-9
    Keywords: water, supplementation, complementary, water intoxication
  • Lactation courses and other events
  • Snoring and sleep apnoea: how it can be prevented in childhood Brian Palmer
    Abstract
    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a very serious health problem in our society today. Medical consequences are significant, health-care costs high and good treatment options limited. The best treatment is prevention. This article addresses the issue.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(2): 11-14
    Keywords: breastfeeding, obstructive sleep apnoea
  • Doesn't the breast work anymore? A rant on the state of lactation advice today Kittie Frantz
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(2): 15-18
  • Book Review
  • Research Summaries
  • Video review
  • Instructions to authors

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Vol 14 No 1 2006

  • Breastfeeding a preterm infant and the objectification of breastmilk Linda Sweet
    Abstract
    This paper presents the theme of objectification of breastmilk, which results from long-term breast expression by parents of hospitalised very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. An interpretive phenomenological study, involving 17 Australian parents was undertaken to explore parents' experiences of breastfeeding very low birth weight preterm infants from birth to twelve months of age. The discussion presented here is elicited from 45 individual interviews held with both mothers and fathers, which were then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Objectification of breastmilk was one of the prevalent themes throughout all of the interviews. The effects of this objectification on the parents and their lactational experience will be discussed. Objectification of the breastfeeding experience, it will be shown, is incongruent with the parents' expectations and has a negative impact on their breastfeeding experience.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(1): 5-13
    Keywords: breastfeeding, breastmilk, breast expression, objectification, preterm
  • Lactation courses and other events
  • Breastfeeding influences on growth and health at one year of age Wendy H Oddy, Jane A Scott, Kathleen I Graham and Colin W Binns
    Abstract
    Our aim was to determine whether a longer duration of full breastfeeding in early infancy acts positively upon health outcomes. Women participating in a birth cohort study in Perth, Australia were followed-up at regular intervals to 52 weeks. Infant feeding, socio-demographic and health-related data were collected. Infants fully breastfed for less than four weeks compared to infants fully breastfed for four weeks or longer had more health problems (odds ratio (OR) 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 2.08; P = 0.048), more doctor visits (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.04, 2.33; P = 0.032) and poorer maternal rating of child health (OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.44, 4.06; P = 0.001) at four weeks. By 52 weeks, formula-fed infants were heavier (10138 g vs 9731 g, P = 0.041) and longer (75.6 cm vs 73.7 cm, P = 0.001) than breastfed infants with early regular formula feeding associated with more overweight (P = 0.011). An adverse effect of formula milk on infant health and postnatal weight gain remains of public health relevance.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(1): 15-23
    Keywords: breastfeeding, infant formula feeding, child health, child overweight
  • The ten steps to successful breastfeeding in Australian hospitals Ava D Walsh, Jan Pincombe and Georgina E Stamp
    Abstract
    Breastfeeding is universally acknowledged as important for the well-being of mothers and babies. The ten steps to successful breastfeeding have been promoted as a means of improving breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. This study aimed to assess the degree of implementation of the ten steps within Australian maternity hospitals and collect breastfeeding rates at discharge. A 55-item questionnaire, modified for Australian conditions, was mailed to all Australian hospitals listed as providing maternity care in the 1998 Hospital and Health Services Yearbook. Of 432 hospitals currently providing maternity care, 387 (90%) responded. High rates of implementation of steps 1a, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 were reported. The mean rate of women breastfeeding at discharge, from 283 responses, was 88%. Australian hospitals compare favorably with similar studies in international environments. Results from this study may be used to target areas for improvements in steps 1b, 2, 7 and 10. Australia-wide breastfeeding rates at discharge have not changed since 1983.
    Breastfeeding Review: 14(1): 25-31
    Keywords: ten steps, breastfeeding, Australian hospitals, baby friendly hospital initiative
  • Research Summaries
  • Book Review
  • Index

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Vol 13 No 3 2005

  • Breastfeeding, the natural state: Highlights of the ABA conference Peta Harvey
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(3): 5-6
    Abstract not available
  • Letter to the editor
  • Why do women stop breastfeeding? A closer look at 'not enough milk' among Israeli women in the Negev Region Lisa Helen Amir and Julie Cwikel
    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the breastfeeding experience of a sample of Israeli women. A random telephone survey of women, aged between 25 and 42, who had children under the age of 18 and were resident in the Negev Region of Israel (N=302), was conducted. Women had an average of three children each (range 1-11) and most breastfed for less than three months. The most common reason given for not breastfeeding or breastfeeding less than three months was 'not enough milk' (90/205; 44%). A four-factor solution was extracted from a factor analysis of the reasons that women gave for stopping breastfeeding before three months or for not initiating breastfeeding. The four factors were: personal concerns (body image, tired, return to work); need help (wants husband to help, child unwell, didn't like breastfeeding), uncomfortable (nipple/breast pain, didn't like breastfeeding) and not confident (not enough milk). Women most frequently report that they stopped breastfeeding because they have insufficient milk, yet the lack of any consistent sociodemographic correlation indicates that this may be a universal way of expressing lack of confidence in breastfeeding
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(3): 7-13
    Key words: breastfeeding, insufficient milk, factor analysis
  • Lactation courses and other events
  • Breastfeeding: maintaining an irreplaceable immunological resource Miriam H. Labbok, David Clark and Armond S. Goldman Reprinted from Nature Rev Immunol 2004 4: 565-572
    Abstract Breastfeeding - the main source of active and passive immunity in the vulnerable early months and years of life - is considered to be the most effective preventive means of reducing the death rate of children under five. Given this, one must wonder why it has slipped quietly down the priorities of the global health and development agendas. In this era of public-private partnerships, can its role as an irreplaceable immunological resource help keep it at the top of global agendas?
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(3): 15-22
    Reprinted from Nature Reviews Immunology 2004, 4: 565-572
  • Turner's Syndrome and breastfeeding Rosemary Parker
    Abstract Prior to the development of successful in vitro fertilisation techniques (IVF), in particular the donor egg program, women with Turner's Syndrome were not able to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term. Therefore the question of lactation was not an issue for these women. Some associated conditions of Turner's Syndrome and IVF therapy include diabetes, hypertension and elevated stress levels. These conditions and the features of Turner's Syndrome may contribute to difficulty in establishing lactation and require appropriate planning and support for the mother to successfully lactate and establish the breastfeeding of her baby. This report is a case study set in a major regional referral hospital in Victoria, Australia.
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(3): 23-25
    Key words: Turner's Syndrome, breastfeeding
  • Research Summaries
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • Book Review

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Vol 13 No 2 2005

  • Breastfeeding experiences of Japanese women living in Perth, Australia. Hideko Utaka, Lin Li, Masaharu Kagawa, Mamiko Okada, Naoko Hiramatsu, Colin Binns
    Abstract The aim of this study was to document the breastfeeding practices of Japanese-Australian mothers living in Perth. A cross-sectional survey of mothers who had delivered babies in Japan or Australia or both was carried out on a sample of 163 mothers recruited through Japanese social and cultural groups in Perth and by a 'snowball' technique. Factors involved in the decision to breastfeed were analysed using multivariate regression analysis. The main outcome measures were the initiation and duration of breastfeeding and cultural beliefs about breastfeeding. Breastfeeding initiation rates of the Japanese-Australian mothers in Japan and in Australia were higher than for other Australians and are consistent with breastfeeding rates in Japan. In Australia, 65% of Japanese-Australian mothers were still breastfeeding at six months. The most common reason for the decision to cease breastfeeding was 'insufficient breastmilk'. The significant factors in breastfeeding duration were 'the time the infant was introduced to infant formula', 'the time when the feeding decision was made', 'doctors support breastfeeding' and 'the mother received enough help from hospital staff'; these were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding. Japanese mothers take a lot of notice of advice given by health professionals about infant feeding practices.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, Australia, Japanese mothers, cultural influences
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(2): 5-11
  • Lactation courses and other events
  • Breast hypoplasia and breastfeeding. Virginia Thorley.
    Abstract Hypoplasia, or glandular insufficiency, of the breasts is an infrequent cause of breastfeeding failure or infant failure to thrive. Early evaluation of the breasts or early identification of infant indicators can enable mothers to breastfeed while providing appropriate supplementation to facilitate satisfactory hydration and growth. A case report is presented of a highly motivated mother with minimal breast tissue who was able to soothe four of her infants at her breasts, supplying some breastmilk, while providing the bulk of their nutritional requirements by other means. At the time of writing, she is tandem breastfeeding as well as providing artificial milk by bottle.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, breast hypoplasia, supplemental nursing systems, Australia, tandem breastfeeding
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(2): 13-16
  • Breastfeeding Friendly Workplace Accreditation - Creating supportive workplaces for breastfeeding women. Sally Eldridge and Anne Croker
    Abstract The strategies of health promotion, as outlined in the World Health Organisation's Ottawa Charter of Health Promotion provide a good framework for a multifaceted approach to improving breastfeeding rates. The Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA) utilises the full range of these health promotion strategies. Through the energy and commitment of the nationwide network of the association's volunteers, many beneficial breastfeeding initiatives have been implemented over the past few years. The aim of this paper is to describe one of these initiatives, the ABA's Breastfeeding Friendly Workplace Accreditation program (BFWA), within the context of health promotion. First, a summary of breastfeeding information will be presented, then the program will be described, the support it provides for breastfeeding mothers in the workplace will be outlined and the impact of BFWA since its implementation in 2002 will be examined.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, supportive workplace, accreditation
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(2): 17-22
  • Erratum:
    Cox S 2004, What's normal in the first week after birth? Breastfeeding Review 12(3): 5-7.
    Table 1, page 6: Twenty-four hours [corrected to First twenty-four hours]; Forty-eight hours [corrected to Second twenty-four hours]; 500-800 mls of milk per day [corrected to Supply rises to 500-800 mls of milk per day]
  • Video Review
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Vol 13 No 1 2005

  • Milk removal from the breast. Donna T Ramsay and Peter E Hartmann
    Abstract Abstract not available
    Keywords:
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(1): 5-7
  • Lactation courses and other events
  • Latch and the fear response: overcoming an obstacle to successfull breastfeeding. Virginia Thorley.
    Abstract A cringe response, born of fear of anticipated nipple pain, creates behaviours that undermine comfortable latch of baby at breast, resulting in the pain the women feared. Fear is an important response in human survival but sometimes the behaviours resulting from the fear are inappropriate. This case study discusses the psychological processes and specific physical responses observed in a woman who is experiencing nipple pain during breastfeeding. It describes steps that can be taken to assist the mother in identifying what she is doing, educating her about the processes involved, and providing her with strategies to override the inappropriate response.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, nipple pain, fear, conditioned response, flinch or freeze response
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(1): 9-11
  • The challenge of mastitis. C. Michie, F Lockie and W Lynn.
    Reprinted from Arch Dis Child 2003, 88: 818-821
    Abstract The process of lactation and feeding, referred to by some as the final stage of labour is remarkably successful. This phase of infant care has been subjected to considerable evolutionary pressure since the earliest mammals, reptiles and birds diversified. It has allowed thousands of species to occupy a vast range of ecological niches. Yet a significant complication of breast feeding remains inflammation of the lactating tissue: the pathology of mastitis. Mastitis rarely develops outside lactation, although it may affect individuals at any age in relation to congenital lesions such as duct ectasia, chronic disseminated infections such as tuberculosis, or during granulomatous, autoimmune or malignant processes. The immunology and consequences of mastitis as well as its impact on vertical transmission of infection require careful examination.
    Keywords:
    Breastfeeding Review: 13(1): 13-16
  • Book Reviews
  • Video Review
  • Research Summaries
  • Instruction to Authors

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Vol 12 No 3 2004

  • What's normal in the first week after birth? Sue Cox
    Abstract To Come.
    Keywords:
  • Breastfeeding in Tigray and Gonder, Ethiopia, with special reference to exclusive/almost exclusive breastfeeding beyond six months Zewditu Getahun, Veronika Scherbaum, Yonas Taffese, Beka Teshome and Hans Konrad Biesalski
    Abstract This study assesses the initiation and duration of exclusive/almost exclusive breastfeeding (Ex/AEx-BF) versus partial breastfeeding (P-BF) and its relationship to infant growth and maternal body mass index (BMI) in Ethiopian infants up to 12 months of age (Tigray n = 471; Gonder n = 569). Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hr after birth was 1.7 times more common in Tigray. In Gonder 19% of the mothers started breastfeeding on the third day of delivery and consequently, a significantly higher proportion of newborns were offered prelacteal feeds (P =< 0.000). At six months, 52.2% and 61.5% of mothers in Tigray and Gonder respectively practised Ex/AEx-BF. Perceived lack of breastmilk was a major factor for offering complementary foods before six months. More than 25% of infants in both regions were Ex/AEx-BF up to the eighth month and 16.4% and 15.7% of infants in Tigray and Gonder were still Ex/AEx-BF at the end of the first year. Growth faltered before six months of age but less frequently in Ex/AEx-BF compared to P-BF infants. Malnutrition became obvious after eight months in both groups. Malnourished mothers (BMI < 18.5) offering mixed feeding to their malnourished children (<-2 z-score) below six months of age was higher in both regions compared to the Ex/AEx-BF group (in Gonder 25% vs 5.9%; in Tigray 42.9% vs 33.3%). Nutrition education to raise awareness of mothers regarding initiation of exclusive breastfeeding directly after birth, the value of colostrum and avoidance of pre/postlacteal feeds, needs to be implemented. A new health package to be implemented could be a proper vehicle to reach the rural population, which doesn't have access to health services. The relationship between infant growth, mode of feeding and mothers nutritional status should be further investigated, particularly in populations with a high prevalence of maternal and infant malnutrition and where long term breastfeeding is practiced.
    Keywords:
  • Breastfeeding the borderline (near term) pre-term infant Nancy E Wight
    Abstract To come.
    Keywords:
  • Letter to the editor
  • Book Reviews
  • Video Reviews
  • Research summaries

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Vol 12 No 2 2004

  • Improving community acceptance of breastfeeding in public: A collaborative approach Rose Boyd and Ellen McIntyre
    Abstract This project, conducted from 2001 to 2003, reports the results of an action research plan aimed to improve community acceptability of breastfeeding in public through the accreditation and promotion of breastfeeding friendly venues in Australia. The Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA) along with other breastfeeding support groups, the media, community groups and organisations have collaborated on this project to promote and distribute over 17 000 'Breastfeeding Welcome Here' kits. The strong links established with ABA and the use of their logo have assisted in promotion of the kit and enabled the initiative to be sustainable beyond the project. The identification of breastfeeding friendly venues has provided more places for mothers to breastfeed in a welcoming environment when out of the home, while at the same time communicating to the community that breastfeeding is acceptable anywhere. Information about the national kit and how to obtain copies is located on the ABA website: www.breastfeeding.asn.au.
    Keywords:
  • Physical exercise and the lactating woman: a qualitative pilot study of mothers' perceptions and experiences Monica Rich, Janet Currie and Catherine McMahon
    Abstract This study aimed to explore the lactating woman's perceptions and experiences of physical exercise. Utilising quantitative and qualitative measures, six lactating women ( age = 31.6 years) who had recently given birth and were engaging in regular exercise, took part in open-ended, semi-structured interviews and questionnaires which focused on their individual experiences. The mothers also completed inventories measuring self-esteem, the presence of postnatal depression, and a retrospective survey gauging their preconception, prenatal and current participation in physical activity. The main themes to emerge from the content analysis of the qualitative data included perceived well-being from improved energy and stress levels, and weight control. Some of the mothers stated that exercise affected their breastfeeding in a negative way by possibly reducing their breastmilk supply. All mothers confirmed exercise as enhancing the maternal-infant relationship. It is recommended that future research be conducted into the exercise prescription guidelines for women to enhance breastfeeding success.
    Keywords:
  • An analysis of the breastfeeding practices of a group of mothers living in Victoria, Australia Jennifer P James
    Abstract While breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the best way to feed babies, few studies have incorporated a holistic approach when attempting to understand breastfeeding 'success' or 'failure'. This study attempted to identify the overall experience of breastfeeding for the women who participated, describe the nature of those experiences and determine which, if any, influences can be modified or changed within the confines of health policy and practice. The study found a range of independent variables that appeared to negatively influence both the experience and the duration of breastfeeding. These variables included antenatal influences such as employment status, education and social support; intrapartal influences such as type of birth, when the first feed occurred and how the mother perceived the first feed and postpartal influences such as introduction of other feeds, multiple problems, where the baby slept overnight and the use of pacifiers. Findings from the study identified a number of modifiable practices that could be developed which would have the potential to increase breastfeeding duration.
    Keywords:
  • WABA news
  • Letter to the editor
  • Book Reviews
  • Research Summaries

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Vol 12 No 1 2004

  • The influence of context on the success of adoptive breastfeeding: Developing countries and the west Karleen D Gribble
    Abstract It is commonly believed that adoptive mothers in developing countries are more successful breastmilk producers than women in the west. A review of published research supports this assertion. However, an examination of the practice of adoptive breastfeeding in developing countries and in the west via the literature reveals differences that may explain the variation in success. Adoptive mothers in developing countries may have greater milk production than mothers in the west because they are more knowledgeable about breastfeeding, practice frequent breastfeeding, remain in close physical contact with their children and live in cultures that are supportive of breastfeeding. They also have reproductive and breastfeeding histories that may make breastfeeding easier, though they are less likely to have pharmaceutical galactagogues available. Adoptive mothers in the west should be encouraged to maximise their milk supply by emulating the mothering styles of women in developing countries and developing a strong support network for breastfeeding. It may be that most adoptive mothers are physically capable of producing sufficient breastmilk for their child but that in the west, sociocultural factors act as preventatives.
    Keywords:
  • Factors influencing mothers' decision to breastfeed in public Yvonne L Hauck
    Abstract Breastfeeding in public was a major theme that emerged in a previous Western Australian study that explored the maternal process of managing breastfeeding and subsequent weaning. This paper highlights the factors that influenced mothers' decisions to breastfeed in public. Confidence with breastfeeding, the ability to be discreet, the mother's body image, previous experience, age of the breastfeeding child, the audience, feelings of the partner, breastfeeding location and perceptions of societal expectations all impacted upon the decision of how to manage breastfeeding in public. Initiatives to promote a breastfeeding friendly community are briefly discussed as well as strategies that participants employed to manage their breastfeeding in public. These findings add to our knowledge on breastfeeding and have implications for how we support breastfeeding women
    Keywords:
  • Midwives' knowledge of newborn feeding ability and reported practice managing the first breastfeed Ruth Cantrill, Debra Creedy and Marie Cooke
    Abstract Continuous uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact is known to facilitate newborn transition to extrauterine life, the ability to actively find the nipple and establishment of effective breastfeeding but is not promoted consistently in practice. The Newborn Feeding Ability Questionnaire (NFAQ) was developed to measure midwives' knowledge and practice in supporting the first breastfeed. The NFAQ was administered to 3 500 midwives in Australia through a mailed survey. A response rate of 31.6% (n=1 105) was achieved and the sample was representative of the national midwifery population for age, sex, education and experience. Mean total score for knowledge was 85.94 (range 40-110 out of 110, SD=10.55) and mean practice score was 95.89 (range 57-117 out of 120, SD=9.19). Knowledge of newborn feeding ability was consistently associated with best practice in managing the first breastfeed. Almost all midwives reported that skin-to-skin contact for newborn infants immediately after birth was important, but few understood the significance of 'continuous uninterrupted' skin-to-skin contact to facilitate correct attachment and effective suckling. One-third reported separating mother and baby for routine interventions before allowing the opportunity to demonstrate pre-feeding behaviour or actually breastfeed. Although midwives attempt to ensure the first breastfeed is facilitated soon after birth, the practice of continuous uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact seems poorly understood and not uniformly practised. Further research is needed to investigate how midwives teach mothers' positioning and attachment for the first breastfeed. Education of midwives so they can optimally facilitate the first breastfeed is required to improve breastfeeding initiation rates.
    Keywords:
  • Book Reviews
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Vol 11 No 3 November 2003

  • The first breastfeed: A content analysis of midwifery textbooks Marie Cooke RN MSPD PhD Ruth Cantrill RM IBCLC BN M Mid(Hons) Debra Creedy RN BA(Hons) PhD
    Abstract This paper reviews content related to the first breastfeed in textbooks commonly used in midwifery education programs in Australia. Few scholars have critically examined the adequacy of such information for evidence-based midwifery practice. Five midwifery textbooks were chosen for content analysis specifically related to: skin-to-skin contact for newborn adaptation; orientation and coordination; suckling for effective breastfeeding; instructions to facilitate breastfeeding initiation; breast structure and function; and breastfeeding promotion. A score was calculated with the maximum possible total of 105. The content analysis scores ranged from 35 to 54, with two texts (Lowdermilk, Perry & Bobak 2000; Sweet 1997) scoring 54. Skin-to-skin contact to facilitate breastfeeding initiation is not well promoted in popular midwifery textbooks. Further research to promote midwives' access to evidence-based research for effective midwifery practice in relation to breastfeeding initiation is required.
    Keywords: content analysis, midwifery practice, initiation, breastfeeding, skin-to-skin, evidence-based practice
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(3): 5-11
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • Book reviews
  • Video review
  • Chinese mothers' knowledge and attitudes about breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia Lin Li BSc Grad Dip Hlth Sc Min Zhang BM Grad Dip Hlth Sc PhD Colin W Binns MBBS MPH PhD FRACGP FACOM FAFPHM
    Abstract The objective of the research was to describe Chinese-Australian (Mandarin speaking) mother's knowledge about and attitudes towards breastfeeding. Data for this cross-sectional survey was obtained by telephone interviews conducted in Mandarin. A sample of 506 Mandarin speaking women was recruited and interviewed in Perth, Western Australia. The majority came from mainland China (81.6%), were aged between 23 and 59 years, and had some tertiary education (76.3%). Most of the mothers (90.9%) indicated that they supported breastfeeding for all infants and most had some knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding. The main reasons that mothers thought women stop breastfeeding were not having enough breastmilk and going back to work or study. The higher the family income, the less preference toward breastfeeding. These findings highlight the significance of social and cultural factors that impact on the women's decisions to initiate and maintain of breastfeeding.
    Keywords: knowledge, attitudes, breastfeeding, Chinese, migrants
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(3): 13-19
  • Lactation courses, conferences, seminars and examinations
  • Breasts and breastfeeding: Perspectives of women in the early months after birthing Mary Harris RM BNHons IBCLC Robyn Nayda RN RM BN(ed) PhD Annette Summers RM BN MEd PhD
    Abstract Over recent years there has been widespread recognition and education about the benefits of breastfeeding. However as many Australian women breastfeed for only a few weeks, education alone appears inadequate to improve breastfeeding duration. This study explored other influences on breastfeeding by looking at women's perceptions of their breasts in relationship to their breastfeeding experiences. Six women were recruited at approximately three months postpartum. The hermeneutic phenomenology of Heidegger (1962) and Gadamer (1975) was the chosen methodology. Individual, unstructured, indepth, conversational interviews were employed and analysed using Colaizzi's (1978) framework, which was modified to manage the large amount of data. Two patterns of differing focus emerged from the interviews, 'mixed images of the breasts' and 'journey through the unknown of breastfeeding and new motherhood'. Each pattern was divided into six and seven related themes respectively.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, breasts, early months, maternal perceptions
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(3): 21-29
  • Research summaries
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Vol 11 No 2 July 2003

  • The relationship between positioning, the breastfeeding dynamic, the latching process and pain in breastfeeding mothers with sore nipples Anna Blair PhD Karin Cadwell PhD RN IBCLC Cindy Turner-Maffei MA IBCLC Kajsa Brimdyr PhD
    Abstract In recognition of the irrefutable disadvantages of not breastfeeding to the mother, baby, society and the environment, increasing the duration of breastfeeding has become a focus of national and international health objectives. However, many mothers experience such painful sore nipples that they stop breastfeeding before they intended. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between various aspects of optimal breastfeeding (eg the positioning of the baby at the mother's breast, the positioning of the baby's head and mouth, the breastfeeding dynamic and the latching process) using a guided assessment and documentation tool and the breastfeeding mother's level of reported pain on a five-point verbal descriptor scale.
    Ninety-five healthy postpartum breastfeeding mothers who sequentially reported sore nipples within ten days of giving birth to healthy, term babies in a hospital in Latvia participated in the study. Each mother's midwife observed, assessed and documented a breastfeed using a guidance assessment form, the Lactation Assessment Tool (LATTM). Each mother scored her own pain during breastfeeding. Four attribute categories were scored and examined as related to the pain levels of the mother: the baby's face position (chin and nose and head position, cheekline, lip flange and angle of mouth opening); the baby's body position (height at the breast, body rotation and body in relation to mother's body); the breastfeeding dynamic (change in nursing pattern (suck vs swallow) and movement of mother's breast) and the latching process of the baby (root, gape, seal and suck).
    No significant difference was found between the mother's level of reported pain and the assessed head position, body position or breastfeeding dynamic attributes of the baby. However, more optimal latching process behaviour of the baby (rooting, gaping, sealing, and sucking behaviour) are slightly related to lower levels of reported pain (r(88) = -0.09, p>0.05). This should serve to remind clinicians that no one aspect of positioning may be more critical than another. Assessment of breastfeeding should be comprehensive and should begin before the infant is at the breast. Early stages of the infant's breast seeking behaviours should be observed as well as the actual feeding.
    Keywords: positioning, breastfeeding, latching process, pain, sore nipples
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(2): 5-10
  • Lactation courses, conferences, seminars and examinations
  • What stories do mothers tell about their experiences in learning how to breastfeed? Sue Smith GradCert(Counselling) BEd(Hons)(Adult Ed)
    Abstract This qualitative study examines the experience of breastfeeding in contemporary society. Seven women who intended to, and did, initiate breastfeeding took part in individual, audio-taped, semi-structured interviews in their own homes in Sydney, Australia, during the months of October 2000 through to January 2001. The interviews allowed participants to share their own stories of their breastfeeding experience. The breastfeeding experiences were disconcerting but not as difficult as expected from their common knowledge. The participants' view of breastfeeding, of breastfeeding in public, working and child care are discussed.
    Keywords: breastfeeding in public, working and child care, perceptions
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(2): 13-18
  • Does maternal smoking have a negative physiological effect on breastfeeding? The epidemiological evidence Lisa Helen Amir MBBS MMed IBCLC Susan M Donath BSc MA GradDipCompSc
    Abstract Women who smoke are less likely to breastfeed their children than nonsmokers. It is thought that nicotine has a negative effect on breastmilk supply by suppressing prolactin levels. The aim of this review was to assess the epidemiological evidence that maternal smoking has a negative physiological effect on breastfeeding. The following data sources were searched: The Cochrane Library, Medline, CINAHL, Current Contents, Psychinfo, Sociological Abstracts and the Lactation Resource Centre (Australian Breastfeeding Association) using the key words 'smoking' and 'breastfeeding' or 'infant feeding'. The Journal of Human Lactation and Birth were hand searched. Women who smoke are less likely to intend to breastfeed, less likely to initiate breastfeeding, and likely to breastfeed for a shorter duration than nonsmokers. Several studies have found a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked each day and breastfeeding intention, initiation, and duration that persists after adjusting for confounding factors. In some population groups a high proportion of smokers breastfeed successfully. The association between maternal smoking and lack of breastfeeding is consistent across different study designs in a range of countries. Given that women who smoke are less likely to intend to breastfeed, however, it cannot be assumed that the relationship between smoking and duration of breastfeeding is a physiological one. If smoking had a consistent negative physiological effect on lactation, one would not expect to see such wide variations in breastfeeding rates among women who smoke. Therefore, it is likely that psychosocial factors are largely responsible for the lower rates of breastfeeding found in women who smoke compared with those who do not.
    Keywords: smoking, breastfeeding, infant feeding
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(2): 19-29
  • Research summaries
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Vol 11 No 1 March 2003

  • Implementing the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative: The role of finger feeding Wendy H Oddy BAppSc MPH PhD Karen Glenn SRN SCM IBCLC
    Abstract The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of finger feeding in encouraging a breastfeeding-type suck in preterm infants. Through identification of a baby who was developing a suck technique or was discovered to have a faulty technique, we hypothesised that preterm breastfeeding rates could be increased by correcting the suck technique of the infant, whilst being cared for in the Special Care Nursery (SCN). The study was conducted on discharge from the SCN at two time periods, before and after the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) in one hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Prior to BFHI, 44% of preterm infants were breastfed on discharge from the SCN compared to 71% post BFHI implementation. We have shown, using a pre- and post-breastfeeding health promotion initiative within a maternity hospital, that preterm breastfeeding rates can be increased on discharge from the SCN.
    Keywords: preterm, breastfeeding, finger feeding, Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(1): 5-9
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • How do women learn about breastfeeding and what are the implications for breastfeeding education? Sue Smith GradCertCounselling BEd(Hons) AdultEd
    Abstract This qualitative study provides an insight into how seven women experienced breastfeeding within the social context of contemporary society. It presents an analysis of their understanding of the meaning of breastfeeding, and the interactions and problem-solving methods they used as they learnt to breastfeed. Findings suggest breastfeeding is multi-faceted and the influence of significant others, the introduction of solid foods and the choice of where breastfeeding advice is sought is discussed.
    Keywords: printed information, significant others, weaning, introduction of infant foods
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(1): 13-20
  • Baby Friendly Hospital Practices: Caesarean section is a persistent barrier to early initiation of breastfeeding Heather J Rowe-Murray BSc(Hons) PhD Jane RW Fisher BSc(Hons) PhD MAPS
    Abstract Documented barriers to the implementation of Step Four of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, which relates to early initiation of breastfeeding, have not considered the impact of operative intervention in delivery on achievement of the goal. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that hospital practices in the immediate postpartum period that are associated with operative intervention in delivery can affect first mother-infant contact and initiation of breastfeeding.
    In a prospective, longitudinal study, a sociodemographically representative sample of 203 primiparous women was recruited. Participants were interviewed at two days postpartum in metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, and medical records were inspected. At eight months postpartum 81 percent of participants completed a postnatal questionnaire. Three mode-of-delivery groups (spontaneous vaginal delivery, instrumentally assisted vaginal delivery and caesarean section) and four hospital-of-delivery groups (including one accredited Baby Friendly Hospital) were compared.
    Two-way ANOVA revealed that women who had a caesarean section experienced a significant delay in initiating breastfeeding compared with women giving birth vaginally, with or without instrumental assistance (p < 0.001). Significant differences in this aspect of care were also observed among hospitals, with the Baby-Friendly hospital performing significantly better than the other three hospitals (p<0.001). An effect due to mode of delivery alone was demonstrated that could not be abolished by differences in hospital practices (p=0.231). Nevertheless, shorter elapsed time between birth and initiation of breastfeeding was not significantly associated with continuation of breastfeeding at eight months postpartum (p=0.642).
    The findings confirmed that caesarean section was a significant barrier to the implementation of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Step Four and that hospital practices were amenable to changes that enabled its implementation regardless of the mode of delivery.
    Keywords: caesarean section, initiation, breastfeeding
    Breastfeeding Review 2003; 11(1): 21-27
  • Book reviews
  • Lactation courses, conferences, seminars and examinations
  • Research summaries
  • Instructions to authors
  • Index

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Vol 10 No 3 November 2002

  • The impact of breastmilk on infant and child health Wendy Oddy Oddy BAppSc MPH PhD
    Abstract Infant-formula-feeding is inferior to breastfeeding because human milk provides specific and non-specific factors that have long-term consequences for early metabolism and the development of disease. Human milk enhances the immature immunologic system of the neonate and strengthens host defense mechanisms against infective and other foreign agents. Some mechanisms that explain active stimulation of the infant's immune system by breastfeeding are the bioactive factors in human milk such as hormones, growth factors and colony stimulating factors, as well as specific nutrients.
    Human milk may reduce the incidence of disease in infancy because mammalian evolution promotes a survival advantage. In addition, factors in milk promote gastrointestinal mucosal maturation, decrease the incidence of infection, alter gut microflora, and have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Hormones, growth factors and cytokines in human milk may modulate the development of disease. Furthermore breastfed babies have reduced exposure to foreign dietary antigen.
    Following the termination of breastfeeding, there is evidence of ongoing protection against illness due to protective influences on the immune system mediated via human milk. Industry continues to attempt to improve infant formula with the addition of compounds such as fatty acids, oligosaccharides, nucleotides and lactoferrin. However, human milk has such far-reaching effects on the infant's immune response that optimal development depends heavily on its provision. All mothers should be encouraged and supported to continue breastfeeding for six months and beyond in order to promote the good health of their infants.

    Keywords: breastfeeding, infections, long-term effects, child health
    Breastfeeding Review2002; 10(3): 5-18
  • Breastfeeding intentions and outcomes of adolescent mothers in the Starting Out program Kaye Greenwood RM BAppSc(AdvNsg)Ed GradDipNsg(ChildFamilyHealth) Patsy Littlejohn BSc MEd GradDipDataCollectionAnalysis
    Abstract Studies of adolescent mothers have shown that they have a lower rate of breastfeeding than older mothers. This study explores the breastfeeding intentions and outcomes of adolescents attending the Starting Out program of UnitingCare Connections. Starting Out is a community-based program for pregnant and parenting young women up to the age of 25 years. The program offers young women counselling, antenatal support and education, supported accommodation, outreach support, and information. Antenatal support and education are an important part of the service offered to pregnant young women at Starting Out. Of the pregnant young women in the study 97.6% said they wanted to breastfeed, with 82.8% breastfeeding on discharge from hospital. However, the number of young women still breastfeeding at three and six months fell to levels lower than these rates for older women. Furthermore, 48.5% of the young women breastfed for a shorter period than they intended to breastfeed. The factors influencing these results are discussed. Although young women are less likely to breastfeed than older women, this study has shown that the Starting Out program has had positive breastfeeding outcomes for young women who were involved in the antenatal classes.
    Keywords: adolescents, breastfeeding
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(3): 19-23
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • A descriptive survey of data collection in breastfeeding Services at Victorian maternity hospitals Ruth Bergman RN RM BAppSc MPH Lisa H Amir MBBS MMed IBCLC Lyndsey Watson BSc MSc
    Abstract An increasing number of breastfeeding clinics have been established in Victoria, Australia since 1994. The aim of this study was to identify hospital breastfeeding clinics in the state of Victoria and to examine their methods of data collection. A further aim was to investigate the feasibility of developing a standard, minimum data-set or attendance registration form for breastfeeding clinics. A postal questionnaire was sent to 82 Victorian maternity hospitals in September 2000. The response rate was 93% (76/82); 81% (62/76) indicated a need for a standard form. The 37 hospitals (49%) that provide a breastfeeding clinic collect a variable amount of information from their clients. Thirteen breastfeeding clinics are provided by maternity hospitals with over 1000 births annually, and they see an average of nine women per week (range 2-18). The collection of standard information would enable a comprehensive description of individual breastfeeding clinic services and comparison between service providers. This could act as the starting point for evaluating breastfeeding clinic service accessibility, profile of usage and the impact on breastfeeding outcomes.
    Keywords: breastfeeding clinic, minimum data-set, postal survey
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(3): 25-29
  • Research summaries
  • Lactation courses, conferences, seminars and examinations
  • Instructions to authors

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Vol 10 No 2 July 2002

  • The path of determination: Exploring the lived experience of breastfeeding difficulties. Yvonne Hauck RN RM PhD, Diana Langton RN RM BN IBCLC, Karen Coyle RN RM MN
    Abstract Breastfeeding is the method of choice for infants and most women support the statement that 'breast is best'. Although the majority of Australian women do initiate breastfeeding, many also encounter difficulties in what they assume to be an easy, natural process. Additionally, a number of women face difficulties significant enough to warrant additional support from resources such as the Breastfeeding Centre of Western Australia. Managing these difficulties influences mothers' perceptions of their breastfeeding experiences. However, the stories of these women have not been addressed in the literature. This phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of mothers with breastfeeding difficulties, who presented to the Breastfeeding Centre of Western Australia. In-depth interviews with ten women revealed three main themes: 'path of determination', 'staying on the path', and 'coming off the path'. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on infant feeding and provides insight to health care professionals working with breastfeeding women.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, lived experience, support
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(2): 5-12
  • Breastfeeding: Reasons for starting, reasons for stopping and problems along the way. Colin W Binns MBBS MPH FRACGP FAFOM FAFPHM, Jane A Scott BAppSc GradDipDietetics MPH PhD
    Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the problems experienced by mothers when breastfeeding and the impact that these problems have on breastfeeding duration. A cohort of 556 mothers who birthed in Perth, Western Australia were recruited to study their infant feeding practices. The mothers were interviewed in hospital and again at 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 weeks postpartum, or until they ceased to breastfeed. The results showed that most mothers were not prepared to experience any difficulties or problems with breastfeeding. Twelve per cent of the mothers left hospital without having attempted to breastfeed. The most common reasons given for infant-formula-feeding related to previous problems with breastfeeding, the ability of husbands to assist with feeding and perceived ease of bottle-feeding. While in hospital 83% of breastfeeding women stated that they had experienced one or more problems related to breastfeeding. Two weeks after leaving hospital 29% of breastfeeding mothers were experiencing problems and the prevalence of problems continued to decline, reaching 13% at six months. In this study the most common reason cited by mothers for stopping breastfeeding before the baby was two weeks old, was that their baby was unsettled, a behaviour often interpreted by mothers as indicating an insufficient milk supply. Levels of anxiety over milk supply reached 23% in the early stages of breastfeeding, and a number of mothers were still experiencing anxiety through to six months. Anxiety over the sufficiency of breastmilk supply was the most serious problem, in that it often resulted in the cessation of breastfeeding. Most mothers experience some problems during breastfeeding, especially in the early stages. Proper advice and management is required to ensure that the problems do not lead to cessation of breastfeeding.
    Keywords: breastfeeding; problems; anxiety over milk supply; duration
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(2): 13-19
  • Video review
  • Lactation courses, conferences, seminars and examinations
  • Using pacifiers: What are breastfeeding mothers doing? Colin W Binns MBBS MPH FRACGP FAFPHM, Jane A Scott BAppSc GradDipDietetics MPH PhD
    Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the impact of pacifier use on the duration of breastfeeding amongst Australian women. A cohort of 556 mothers who delivered in Perth, Western Australia was recruited to study their infant feeding practices. The mothers were interviewed in hospital and again at 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 weeks postpartum, or until they ceased to breastfeed. At two weeks 62% of breastfed babies were using a pacifier, increasing to a peak of 78% at six weeks. Infants who were using a pacifier had slightly fewer feeds each day at every age period (for example 6.9 versus 7.4 feeds at six weeks of age), but there was no difference in the number of night feeds. A recent study suggested that the mothers resorted to the use of pacifiers when they were having problems breastfeeding, and any impact of pacifiers on breastfeeding duration was due to confounding factors. However in this longitudinal study, after adjusting for the presence of breastfeeding problems, the use of a pacifier at two weeks was associated with reduced likelihood of breastfeeding to six months (odds ratio 0.40, 95%CI 0.25-0.63). Based on the results of this study we concluded that the use of a pacifier at two weeks of age reduced the likely duration of breastfeeding to six months. A possible mechanism of action was the reduced number of daily feeds in breastfed infants that would reduce breast stimulation. If mothers choose to use a pacifier they should introduce it later and use it infrequently.
    Key words: breastfeeding, pacifiers, duration
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(2): 21-25
  • Initial infant feeding decisions and duration of breastfeeding in women from English, Arabic and Chinese-speaking backgrounds in Australia. Caroline SE Homer RM PhD, Athena Sheehan RM MN, Margaret Cooke RM BA (Hons) PhD
    Abstract Anecdotally, concerns are often expressed about the varying infant feeding decisions among women from different cultural groups. This paper reports the early infant feeding decisions and duration of breastfeeding in 986 women from English, Chinese and Arabic-speaking backgrounds in Sydney during 1997 and 1998. Data were collected from an audit of medical records and through a questionnaire at eight weeks postpartum. Chinese-speaking women were less likely to express an intention to breastfeed and fewer initiated breastfeeding compared with other women. Arabic-speaking women had significantly longer duration rates compared with other women. A greater proportion of the Chinese-speaking women who initiated breastfeeding, were still breastfeeding at eight weeks compared with English-speaking women. This study suggests that there are differences in the infant feeding decisions between English, Arabic and Chinese-speaking women. Clinicians need to further understand cultural differences when providing care, education and support in a multicultural context.
    Key words: breastfeeding, Arabic and Chinese-speaking women, decisions, practices
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(2): 27-32
  • Research summaries
  • Instructions to authors

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Vol 10 No 1 March 2002

  • Breastfeeding articles in the Australian press: 1996-1999. Judith Manniën MSc, Winette E. van den Brandhof MSc, Dr Ellen McIntyre MSc, PhD, IBCLC, Prof Janet E. Hiller BA, MPH, PhD
    Abstract The mass print media provide an opportunity to promote health messages to the general community. This paper examines articles on breastfeeding in the mass print media available to a low socioeconomic area in Australia over a four-year period from 1996 to 1999. Between January 1996 and December 1999, 334 breastfeeding articles were identified in the four main newspapers available in a low socioeconomic metropolitan area. Breastfeeding messages presented by the articles were examined using content analysis. While most articles presented a neutral message about breastfeeding (43%), more articles presented a positive message (35%) than a negative message (14%). Twenty-two percent of the articles were letters to the editor, and only 1.3% of the articles were accompanied by photos of a baby being breastfed. Fifty-five articles discussed breastfeeding in public making it the most common breastfeeding issue mentioned. Breastfeeding is an emotive issue and could be more actively supported and promoted by publishing more newspaper articles that present a positive message of breastfeeding, more positive headlines, and more breastfeeding photos.
    Key words: mass print media, breastfeeding, content analysis
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(1): 5-10
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • Breastfeeding difficulty and pacifier use. Nikki Lee RN MSN IBCLC CIMI
    Abstract Research about pacifiers used in the healthy, term infant shows that they are associated with shortened breastfeeding duration, acute otitis media, and may be a marker for breastfeeding difficulty. This case study describes a situation where latch was faulty from the beginning, and a pacifier was introduced when the thriving baby was two and a half weeks old. The baby's average number of daily feeds dropped from 14 breastfeeds a day to nine breastfeeds. The baby's rate of weight gain dropped from 1135 g (2 lb 7 oz) gain in the first 16 days of life, down to a gain of 180 g (6 oz) over the next 15 days. The baby's fussiness and the mother's nipple soreness disappeared after a lactation consultant helped the mother to correct the latch and stop using the pacifier. While it is not possible to say that the pacifier caused slower weight gain, less frequent breastfeeds or nipple soreness, it would seem to be implicated in the changes.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, frequency of feeds, nipple soreness, pacifier
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(1): 11-13
  • Video reviews
  • Book reviews
  • Letters to the editor
  • Breastfeeding and Staphylococcus aureus: Three case reports. Lisa Amir MBBS MMed IBCLC
    Abstract This paper presents three case reports of breastfeeding women with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections. The first case is a woman who developed recurrent staphylococcal skin infections, misdiagnosed as a fungal infection by her caregivers. The second case is a woman who experienced recurrent mastitis following a severe wound infection in her Caesarean section scar; both she and her baby were carriers of S. aureus. The third case is a woman who experienced mastitis and a breast abscess, while her baby and other members of the family developed recurrent boils and skin infections with a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A wide range of staphylococcal infections may occur in the postpartum period: mastitis, abscess, caesarean scar infection, boils and skin infection. Some cases of recurrent infections may be related to nasal carriage in mother or infant. Microscopy can be useful in differentiating bacterial infections from fungal infections and confirming nasal carriage. When mothers or infants are nasal carriers of Staphylococci health professionals may recommend nasal mupirocin (Bactroban) and bathing with antiseptic washes to reduce recurrent staphylococcal infections.
    Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, bacterial infection, nasal carriage, mastitis, abscess
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(1): 15-18
  • Complementary feeding patterns in Pondok Labu, South Jakarta, Indonesia. Anneke Greta MSc, Gustaaf Sevenhuysen PhD, Ursula Gross PhD, Soemilah Sastroamidjojo Prof Dr MD
    Abstract This paper explores the sociocultural aspects in the reasons mothers gave for terminating exclusive breastfeeding. These sociocultural aspects were anticipated to influence the variance between actual breastfeeding practice and the current recommendations for exclusive breastfeeding. The complementary feeding patterns and the reasons for introducing complementary foods were assessed using a dietary recall called the Food Choice Map, in a sample of 40 mothers living in a sub-district of South Jakarta. The results showed that the most common reason for introducing first foods in this study was 'insufficient breastmilk'. The influential social factors, including parents, friends and medical professionals were identified. The feeding pattern of the infants in the first six months was highly variable, and commercial baby food was frequently used. We suggest that, even though current exclusive breastfeeding recommendations are beneficial, their promotion should be more sensitive to the social reality of the mothers.
    Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, insufficient breastmilk, culture, society
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(1): 19-24
  • Maternal dietary advice as an artifact of time and culture: Post-World War II Queensland. Virginia Thorley OAM ThA MA DipEd GradCertTESOL IBCLC
    Abstract Dietary advice to breastfeeding mothers in post-World War II Queensland, 1945-1965, was not evidence-based, but based on cultural beliefs. Diet-based recommendations for boosting the breastmilk yield included increased intake of milk and protein foods, food supplements, especially chocolate-flavoured supplements, and tablets. Although community beliefs about foods to be avoided during lactation were reflected in informal advice, foods such as green leafy vegetables were specifically recommended by the print materials of the period as part of a healthy diet during breastfeeding.
    Keywords: maternal diet, breastfeeding, cocoa, vegetables, post-World War II
    Breastfeeding Review 2002; 10(1): 25-29
  • Research summaries
  • Lactation courses, conferences, seminars and examinations
  • Instructions to authors

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Vol 9 No 3 November 2001

  • Inducing lactation: A personal account after gestational 'surrogate motherhood' between sisters Maggie Kirkman and Linda Kirkman. Maggie Kirkman PhD MAPS, Linda Kirkman BA DipEd DipHlthSci
    Abstract In Australia in 1988, Linda Kirkman gestated a baby for her sister, Maggie Kirkman (conceived using Maggie's ovum and IVF). During the pregnancy, a variety of means were used to stimulate lactation. After the birth, several women donated breastmilk as supplements to Maggie's supply. The paper discusses not only the induction of lactation, but the cooperation of women, that enabled a baby to be fed breastmilk exclusively for her first four months.
    Keywords: induced lactation, expressed breastmilk, Supply Line, gestational surrogacy
    Breastfeeding Review 2001; 9(3): 5-11
  • Book reviews
  • Breastfeeding Ancient Art Modern Miracle
  • Mother-to-mother support for women breastfeeding in unusual circumstances: A new method for an old model. Karleen Gribble BRurSc PhD
    Abstract Support is critical for breastfeeding success. Mother-to-mother support via groups such as La Leche League and the Australian Breastfeeding Association, formerly Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia, is helpful to mothers in average circumstances. However, for women who are in more unusual circumstances, this support may be inadequate on its own. With the advent of the Internet, this problem has been decreased through the formation of Internet breastfeeding support groups. An Internet mailing list for women wishing to breastfeeding their adopted children was used to investigate how Internet groups may provide breastfeeding support. Members of the mailing list were surveyed on issues relevant to breastfeeding support. It was identified that the mailing list overcame the problems of geographical isolation, lack of appropriate information and support and a sense of feeling alone. It is concluded that Internet breastfeeding support groups can provide mother-to-mother support to those breastfeeding in unusual circumstances. Those assisting women to breastfeed may refer women to these groups, use the groups as a resource in educating themselves or offer their knowledge and experience to such groups as a resource.
    Key words: adoption, Internet, support, induced lactation
    Breastfeeding Review 2001; 9(3): 13-19
  • Video reviews
  • Letters to the editor
  • Initiating breastfeeding in postwar Queensland. Virginia Thorley OAM ThA MA DipEd GradCert TESOL IBCLC
    Abstract The aim of this article, part of a larger study (Thorley 2000), was to determine and examine the practices which surrounded the initiation of breastfeeding in Queensland maternity hospitals in the postwar period, 1945-1965. Although it was assumed that mothers would breastfeed, and sound advice was available on how to achieve a good latch, the often arbitary delay of the first breastfeed, and consistently restrictive practices surrounding the frequency and duration of the feeds, were not conducive to an optimal start in breastfeeding. Staff shortages compounded the situation. Mothers felt powerless and were commonly not informed about whether their babies were being complemented with pooled breastmilk or artificial infant milk in the central nursery, nor were they asked permission for these to be given to their babies. Pooled breastmilk from the postnatal wards was available throughout this period, though in the latter part of this period there appears to have been an increase in the use of artificial milks.
    Keywords: breastfeeding, maternity hospitals, Queensland, postwar, midwives
    Breastfeeding Review 2001; 9(3): 21-26
  • Lactation courses, conferences and seminars
  • Community attitudes to infant feeding. Ellen McIntyre MSc PhD IBCLC, Janet E Hiller BA MPH PhD, Deborah Turnbull BA(Hons) MPsych PhD Senior Lecturer
    Abstract A cross-sectional study was designed to describe the social context in which breastfeeding occurs by examining experiences of and attitudes toward infant feeding within the general community. Of the 2500 randomly selected adults who participated in the telephone survey, 61% had been breastfed, the youngest child of 52% of participants (who were also parents) had been mainly breastfed but 58% of babies seen by participants were bottle-fed. The attitudes examined in this survey suggest there was little support for breastfeeding, particularly outside the home. Over 80% of participants agreed that bottle-feeding was more acceptable in public places and 70% agreed there was not always a place to breastfeed when outside the home. In addition, bottle-feeding was considered easier and more convenient indicating the social environment was not very breastfeeding friendly. Interventions to enhance environmental support for breastfeeding need to focus on reducing these barriers so that breastfeeding in public is more acceptable and breastfeeding in general is easier and more convenient.
    Keywords: infant feeding, community attitudes, cross-sectional study, social environment
    Breastfeeding Review 2001; 9(3): 27-33
  • Research summaries
  • Instructions to authors
  • Mary Paton Research Award

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Vol 9 No 2 July2001

In this issue...

Wendy Oddy reviews the evidence that breastfeeding protects against illness and infection in infants and children. Colin Binns and Lianawati Tjiang present their research into the breastfeeding knowledge of Indonesian students studying at Curtin University in Perth. Their paper is the first step in the inclusion of breastfeeding education in these students' program. Heather Purnell provides a practical summary of the issues infants and mothers with PKU face and how they can manage their diets. Susan Arbon provides information on the development of a breastfeeding questionnaire and the steps she took to develop a questionnaire that would provide reliable responses from study participants. The research summaries again provide some interesting reading. All letters to the editor are welcome.

Kim Boyd

  • Indonesian students' knowledge of breastfeeding Lianawati Tjiang and Colin Binns
  • World Health Assembly Resolution
  • Breastfeeding protects against illness and infection in infants and children: a review of the evidence Wendy Oddy
  • Phenylketonuria and maternal phenylketonuria Heather Purnell
  • Letter to the editor
  • Book reviews
  • The reliability of a breastfeeding questionnaire Susan Arbon and Jen Byrne
  • Video reviews
  • Courses/conferences/seminars/examinations
  • Research summaries
  • Instructions to authors

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Vol 9 No 1 March 2001

  • Mastitis in lactating women: physiology or pathology? Cathy Fetherston RM MSc IBCLC
    Abstract: Mastitis is a significant problem amongst lactating women yet there remains a paucity of scientific research into the anatomical, physiological and pathological determinants for mastitis. There is also scant knowledge regarding the physiological changes occurring within the breast as a result of mastitis. This paper examines the available research and current clinical and scientific opinion concerning the breast's response to inflammation and infection and the numerous influences that may impact upon the development of mastitis. In particular, the difficulties associated with differentiating between infective and non-infective mastitis are discussed.
    Keywords: mastitis, infective mastitis, non-infective mastitis, lactation
    Breastfeeding Review 2001; 9(1): 5-12
  • Attitudes towards infant feeding among adults in a low socioeconomic community: what social support is there for breastfeeding? Ellen McIntyre MSc PhD IBCLC, Janet Hiller BA MPH PhD and Deborah Turnbull BA(Hons) MPsych PhD
    Abstract: An analysis of the role of social support in influencing breastfeeding in a low socioeconomic area in South Australia was undertaken by examining infant feeding attitudes and experiences of mothers, fathers and grandmothers as well as the general community. A random telephone survey of over 3,400 adults (including a more extensive survey of 373 mothers, fathers and grandmothers in the sample) in this area indicated that there was little support for breastfeeding compared to bottle-feeding with similar barriers to breastfeeding found in all target groups as well as the general community. These included breastfeeding in public, the convenience of bottle-feeding, maternal discomfort of breastfeeding, the support required for breastfeeding, fathers' involvement with feeding, and a mother's previous experience of breastfeeding. Strategies promoting and supporting breastfeeding should address these issues and should be directed at the community in general rather than specific groups within the community.
    Keywords: infant feeding, attitudes, social support, low socioeconomic
    Breastfeeding Review 2000; 9(1): 13-24
  • Letter to the editor
  • Book reviews
  • What is normal? A study of normal breastfeeding dyads during the first sixty hours of life Stephanie BensonRN CM GradDipAdvMidwifery IBCLC C FHNcert
    Abstract:The aim of the study was to describe breastfeeding behaviour during the first 60 hours of life of 'normal' dyads. The Infant Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (IBFAT) was used on a convenience sample of 37 mother-baby dyads. Individual dyads were assessed and then the group was combined to seek underlying patterns. Average time between feeds was 3.36 + - 0.17 hours. There was a marked diurnal pattern of feeding. Parity affected the rate at which high feeding ability scores were achieved, while the majority of babies were achieving high scores within 24 hours of birth. The results provide a baseline against which future research on interventions during labour and its effect on breastfeeding initiation can be compared.
    Keywords: mother-baby dyad, breastfeeding, normal, IBFAT
    Breastfeeding Review 9(1): 27-32
  • Research summaries
  • Video reviews
  • Courses/conferences/seminars
  • Index for 2000

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Vol 8 No 3 November 2000

  • Support for breastfeeding in the first postpartum month: perceptions of breastfeeding women. Joan Hailes and Sally Wellard
  • Assisting women to establish breastfeeding: exploring midwives' practices. Ann Henderson, Jan Pincombe, Georgie Stamp
  • Long-term expressing of breastmilk. Hayley Stockdale
  • Does maternal obesity adversely affect breastfeeding initiation and duration? Sue Donath and Lisa Amir
  • Winner of the Mary Paton Research Award
  • Rates of breastfeeding in Australia: Evidence from the 1995 National Health Survey
  • Lactation courses, conferences and seminars
  • Research summaries
  • Letters to the editor

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Vol 8 No 2 July 2000

  • Breastfeeding - a gradual return to mother's autonomy. Suzanne G Cox and Cynthia J Turnbull
  • The counselling needs of breastfeeding women. Vicki Grieve and Tricia Howarth
  • Breastfeeding and Chinese mothers living in Australia. Sue Diong, Maree Johnson and Rachel Langdon
  • Impetigo on the areola and nipple. Virginia Thorley
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • Book Reviews
  • Video Reviews
  • Lactation courses, conferences and seminars
  • Research Summaries

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Vol 8 No. 1 March 2000

  • Breastfeeding and asthma in children: findings from a West Australian study. W Oddy
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • Cultural beliefs and breastfeeding duration of Thai working women. P Kaewsarn, W Moyle
  • The implementation of the HOT program at the Royal Women's Hospital.D Fletcher, H Harris
  • An analysis of personal and social factors influencing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in a large Queensland maternity hospital. T Papinczak, C Turner
  • Book Reviews
  • Letters to the editor
  • Lactation courses, conferences and seminars, examinations
  • Video Reviews
  • Research Summaries

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Vol 7 No 3 November 1999

  • The HIV challenge to breastfeeding - Ted Greiner
  • Mary Paton Research Award
  • HIV and infant feeding: to breastfeed or not to breastfeed the dilemma of competing risks. Part 2 - Pamela Morrison
  • WABA position statement on HIV and breastfeeding - World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA)
  • Breastfeeding - Natural fertility control/LAM: an effective option - Barbara Gross
  • Breastmilk and infection - a brief overview - John May
  • Lactation courses, conferences and seminars
  • Ready for birth -but what about breastfeeding - Jenni James
  • Book Reviews
  • Video Reviews
  • Research Summaries

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Vol 7 No 2 July1999

  • HIV and infant feeding: to breastfeed or not to breastfeed: the dilemma of competing risks - Pamela Morrison
  • HIV and infant feeding: A policy statement developed collaboratively by UNAIDS, WHO and UNICEF, 1997 - UNAIDS, WHO and UNICEF
  • Promoting breastfeeding in the neonatal intensive care unit - JL Wheeler, M Johnson, L Collie, D Sutherland and C Chapman
  • An analysis of breastfeeding initiation in Tasmania by demographic and socioeconomic factors - Roger Hughes and Suzanne Cox
  • Lactation courses, conferences and seminars
  • Older babies who bite at the breast - Robyn Noble
  • The "average" Breastfeeding Counsellor - NMAA
  • Video Reviews
  • Book Reviews
  • Research Summaries
  • Instructions to authors

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Vol 7 No 1 March 1999

  • Factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding: a review of the literature - Jane A. Scott and Colin Binns
  • Suitability of breastfeeding facilities outside the home: an audit of baby change rooms in shopping centres - Ellen McIntyre, Deborah Turnball and Janet E. Hiller
  • NMAA National Breastfeeding Education - Family Project
  • Lactation courses, conferences and seminars
  • Orofacial exercises for babies with breastfeeding problems? - Anne Bovey, Robyn Noble and Marcia Noble
  • The Blue Mountains breastfeeding friendly program - Kristine Lobley and Emma Walker
  • Video Reviews
  • Breasts, babies and universities: reflections of two lactating professors - Amanda Sinclair and Mary E. Black
  • Book Reviews
  • Health Professionals Project
  • Research summaries
  • 1998 Index

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Vol 6 No 2 August 1998

  • The economics of breastfeeding in Singapore - Doris Fok, Tay Guang Mong and Dominique Chua
  • Book Reviews
  • Developing effective interactions to improve breastfeeding outcomes
    Part 1: Moving midwives towards mothers' autonomy in breastfeeding
    Part 2: Antenatal empowerment of mothers for postnatal success in breastfeeding
    Suzanne Cox and Cynthia Turnbull
  • Breastfeeding a baby with gastric reflux - an Adelaide mother
  • Breastfeeding and the use of recreational drugs - alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and marijuana - Janet Liston
  • The engorgement enigma - Rebecca Glover
  • Research summaries
  • Video Reviews

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Vol 6 No 1 May 1998

  • The establishment and duration of breastfeeding. Part 1: Hospital influences - Alison Vogel and Edwin Mitchell
  • The establishment and duration of breastfeeding Part 2: Community influences - Alison Vogel and Edwin Mitchell
  • Breastfeeding, work and women's health among Thai women in Chiang Mai - Susanha Yimyam
  • Courses/seminars/conferences
  • Breastfeeding information and support services offered by Melbourne hospitals in antenatal classes- N Lowe
  • Lactose intolerance- Laureen Lawlor-Smith and Carolyn Lawlor-Smith
  • Letter to the editor
  • Breastfeeding and the use of human milk - American Academy of Pediatrics
  • Review
  • Research summaries
  • Index for 1997

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Vol 5 No 2 November 1997

  • Characteristics of lactation mastitis in a Western Australian cohort - Catherine Fetherston
  • Management of lactation mastitis in a Western Australian cohort - Catherine Fetherston
  • Survey results
  • Courses/Seminars/Conferences
  • Breastfeeding and HIV - Elizabeth Hormann
  • Breastfeeding in Singapore - Doris Fok
  • An analysis of breastfeeding print educational material - Anna Vnuk
  • Book review; SIDS and breastfeeding
  • Therapeutic teat use in babies who breastfeed poorly - Robyn Noble and Ann Bovey
  • Inverted nipple with fatty plaques on areola and nipple - Virginia Thorley
  • Research summaries

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Vol 5 No 1 MAY 1997

  • Guest editorial - J Akré
  • Breastfeeding and formula feeding: a preliminary economic analysis - D Drane
  • The needs of women who contact the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia's breastfeeding counselling service - V Grieve, T Howarth, M Swallow, J Greig
  • Lactational headaches - V Thorley
  • Courses/seminars/conferences
  • NMAA's Breastfeeding Consultancy Service
  • Lactational failure caused by lack of glandular development in the breast - J Michell
  • Psychological aspects of nipple pain in lactating women - LH Amir, L Dennerstein, SM Garland, J Fisher, SJ Farish
  • Research summaries
  • Conference report
  • Video reviews
  • Video hire from the LRC
  • LRC research register
  • Index for 1996

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Vol 4 No. 2 November 1996

  • Editorial
  • The effect of use of dummies and teats on orofacial development - D. Drane
  • Breastfeeding education: meeting the needs of the expectant parent - J. Hanson
  • Courses/Seminars/Conferences
  • Australian breastfeeding rates: the challenge of monitoring - M. Lund-Adams, P. Heywood
  • Effects of maternal pethidine on infants' developing breastfeeding behaviour - E. Nissen et al
  • Reviews
  • Letter to the Editor
  • An early arrival: Sarah's story - E. Brown
  • Adoptive breastfeeding: a personal experience - J. Lambert
  • Expanding the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI): Eleven Steps to Optimal Infant Feeding in a Paediatric Unit - M. Minchin, C. Minogue et al
  • Research Summaries

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Vol 4 No. 1 May 1996

  • Guest Editorial - R. Escott
  • A Review of Breastfeeding Practices in Hong Kong - 1994/1995 - Y. Chee, L. Horstmanshof
  • Cross Cultural Practice and Its Influence on Breastfeeding - The Chinese Culture - D. Fok
  • Letters to the Editor
  • Adolescent Mothers' Experience of Parenting and Breastfeeding: A Descriptive Study - S. Benson
  • Positioning and Attachment Checklist
  • Courses/Seminars/Conferences
  • Low Fat Diet and Exercise in Obese Lactating Women - R.L. Hammer, G. Babcock, A.G. Fisher
  • Reviews
  • Nipple Vasospasm in the Breastfeeding Woman - L. Lawlor-Smith, C. Lawlor-Smith
  • Research Summaries
  • LCs on the Internet
  • Index

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Vol 3 No. 2 November 1995

  • Guest Editorial - L. Huxley
  • Perceptions and Correlates of Nipple Pain - J. Heads, L. Higgins
  • Mastitis: Incidence, Prevalence and Cost - M. Evans, J. Heads
  • Retrospect: Summaries of Papers on Mastitis
  • Management Practices in Lactation - E. McIntyre
  • Research Summaries
  • Failure to Lactate - Two Cases Explained
  • Courses/Seminars/Conferences
  • Video Reviews
  • NMAA Policy Statement on Breastfeeding

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Vol. 3 No. 1 April 1995

  • Breastfeeding Research: Is It Needed And How To Get Started - A. Vnuk, C. Silagy
  • Courses/Seminars/Conferences
  • Factors Influencing Breastfeeding Initiation And Duration In A Private Western Australian Maternity Hospital - C. Fetherston
  • Breastfeeding - Why Start? Why Stop? A Prospective Survey Of South Australian Women - G. Stamp, C. Crowther
  • Women As Mothers: Mothers Through Their Own Words And The Words Of Others - V. Bundrock
  • Research Summaries
  • Breastfeeding Twins - Two Onto One Does Go
  • Reviews
  • Cup Feeding: An Alternative Method Of Infant Feeding - S. Lang, C. Lawrence, R. Orme
  • Index to Volume Two

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Vol. 2 No. 10 November 1994

  • Guest Editorial - Empowering Women to Breastfeed Successfully - K. Shelton
  • Choosing to Breastfeed or Bottle-Feed - An Analysis of Factors Which Influence Choice - S. Cox, C. Turnbull
  • Conferences/Seminars/Workshops/Courses
  • Remedial Co-Bathing For Breastfeeding Difficulties - H. Harris
  • Breastfeeding Triplets - It Can Be Done! - J. Duggin
  • Eastern Europe: Breastfeeding in the Balance - E. Hormann
  • News and Views
  • Book Review
  • Breastfeeding - What Happens During The First 12 Months - T. Lowe
  • Mother-Friendly Workplace

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Vol. 2 No. 9 May 1994

  • Guest Editorial - Ros Escott
  • What's Happening At Government Level? - NMAA
  • Breastfeeding And Public Policy In Australia: Limitations Of A Nutritional Focus - M. Morrow, S. Barraclough
  • Lactation Courses/Workshops/Seminars
  • The Extrusion Reflex - Its Relevance To Early Breastfeeding - J. Stephens, J. Kotowski
  • The Immune System Of Human Milk: Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory And Immunomodulating Properties - A.S. Goldman
  • Making The Who Code Work - WBW
  • Transforming Health Colleagues Into Breastfeeding Advocates - WABA
  • Letter to the Editor
  • Book Review
  • News and Views
  • Video Review

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Vol. 2 No. 8 November 1993

  • The Economic Value of Breastfeeding - S. Meershoek
  • Just One Bottle... - A. Vnuk
  • 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding - Literature Support - E. McIntyre
  • Current Knowledge about Skin-to-Skin (Kangaroo) Care for preterm Infants - G.C. Anderson
  • News and Views
  • Use of Pacifiers and Breastfeeding Duration - C.G. Victora, E. Tomasi, M.T.A. Olinta, F.C. Barros
  • Lactation Resource Centre - Guidelines and Functions
  • Reasons For The Early Cessation Of Breastfeeding In Women From Lower Socio-economic Groups In Perth, Western Australia - V. Bailey, J. Sherriff
  • Book Review
  • Lactation Courses/Workshops/Seminars

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Vol. 2 No. 7 May 1993

  • Breastfeeding Review - Editorial Guidelines
  • LC,GP, BFC: Which Hat To Wear - W. Brodribb
  • Regional And Socio-economic Variations In The Duration Of Breastfeeding In Victoria - T. Lowe
  • Book Reviews
  • Ultrasound Treatment For Breast Engorgement: A Randomised Double Blind Trial - Z. McLachlan, E.J. Milne, J. Lumley, B.L. Walker
  • Weaning - J. Hill
  • LRC Mission Statement
  • Letters to the Editor
  • World Breastfeeding Week
  • APMAIF operating procedures
  • Body Mass Index And Duration Of Breastfeeding: A Survival Analysis During The First Six Months Of Life - I.H.E. Rutishauser, J.B. Carlin
  • News and Views
  • Breast Disease: The Role Of The Nurse-Midwife - M.C. Brucker, M. Scharbo-DeHan

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Vol. 2 No. 6 November 1992

  • Is There A Problem With Breastfeeding In Africa? - M. Kyenkya-Isabirye, H. Armstrong
  • The Billings Ovulation Method And Breastfeeding - E. Hennell
  • Chele Mermet Seminars
  • A Community Hospital-Based Breastfeeding Counselling Service - E.R. Moore, M. Bianchi-Gray, L. Stephens
  • Randomised Control Trial Of Breast Shells And Hoffman's Exercises For Inverted And Non-Protractile Nipples - J.M. Alexander, A.M.Grant, M.J. Campbell
  • Book Reviews
  • Lactation Courses
  • News and Views
  • The Transfer Of Alcohol To Human Milk - J.A. Mennella, G.K. Beauchamp
  • Seminar Abstracts
  • Derrick Jelliffe Memorial Fund
  • Stripping Out Pus In Lactational Mastitis: A Means Of Preventing Breast Abscess - H. Bertrand, L.K. Rosenblood

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Vol 2 No 5 May 1992

  • The ecological impact of bottle feeding - A Radford
  • Initiating breastfeeding: a world survey of the timing of postpartum breastfeeding - Morse JM, Jehle C, Gamble D
  • Human breast-milk contains bovine IgG. Relationship to infant colic? - Clyne PS, Kulczycki A
  • The relationship between rooming-in/not rooming-in and breast-feeding variables - Yamauchi Y, Yamanouchi I
  • Breastfeeding preterm infants - TR Gunn
  • Weight gains in the breastfed baby - R Leeson

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Vol 2 No 4 November 1991

  • A behavioural model for counselling the nursing mother - Davies JM
  • Assisting the employed breastfeeding mother - KG Auerbach
  • A randomised, controlled evaluation of early postpartum hospital discharge - EM Carty, CF Bradley
  • Breastfeeding after breast reduction. Guidelines for mothers - Nicholson W
  • Breastfeeding and child spacing: Importance of information collection for public health policy - R Saadeh, D Benbouzid
  • The resumption of ovulation and mensrtuation in a well-nourished population of women breastfeeding for an extended period of time - P Lewis, J Brown, M Renfree, R Short

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Vol 2 No 3 July 1991

  • Innocenti Declaration
  • Results from the first year of the New Zealand cot death study - EA Mitchell, R Scagg, AW Stewart, DMO Becroft, BJ Taylor, RPK Ford, IB Hassall, DMJ Barry, EM Allen, AP Roberts
  • Breastfeeding out of the closet - Leonard H
  • Milk under the skin (milk blister) - a simple problem causing other breast conditions - Noble R
  • "Relics" from the "scientific" Era - D Hubner
  • Towards consistency in breastfeeding definitions - M Labbock K Krasovec
  • The genuine liebfraumilch: a national treasure at risk! - M Minchin
  • Breastfeeding management: helping the mother help herself - E McIntyre
  • Observations of interactional strategies between parent and child in two Australian communities - Phillips V
  • Non governmental organisation consultation on the preparation of Australia's Second Report pm the UN Convention on Elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW)

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Vol 2 No 2 Nov 1990

  • Neutralising activity against herpes simplex virus in human milk - I Lopez, M Quibriac, J Petijean, M Bazin, JF Duhamel, F Freymuth
  • Priorities for national Health statistics - V Bundrock
  • Growth and morbidity of breastfed infants whose mothers were using combination pills - Madhavapeddi R, Ramachandran P
  • Infant feeding in Australia : An historical perspective Parts 2 & 3 - NE Hitchcock
  • Safety and illiteracy: Breastfeeding still streets ahead - V Phillips
  • Urban-rural differentials and determinants of breastfeeding in Western Jamaica - Melville B
  • Breastfeeding: attitudes and knowledge of health professionals - T Lowe
  • Expectations and experiences of breastfeeding in a primiparous sample - CA McMahon
  • Lactation consultants and voluntary breastfeeding counsellors: complementary roles or conflict? - Phillips V

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Vol 2 No 1 May 1990

  • Protective effect of breastfeeding against infection - P Howie, J Stewart Forsyth, SA Ogston, A Clark C du V. Flory
  • Infant feeding in Australia: An historical perspective Part 1: 1788-1900 - NE Hitchcock
  • Rise and fall of coeliac disease 1960-1985 - DA Kelly, AD Phillips EJ Elliott, JA Dias JA Walker-Smith
  • The emotional experience of breast expression - JM Morse JL Boltorff
  • Where the self-help group fits into the health-care scene: with special reference to NMAA - Phillips V
  • Stress according to breastfeeding counsellors: a personal construct study - Hatherley PA, Diamond CTP
  • Reproduction against the odds - A Prentice, A Prentice

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Vol 1 No 15 November 1989

  • Science and the politics of breastfeeding birthright or birth rite? - TB Mepham
  • The Lactation Resource Centre - P Lewis
  • Children and milk - R Beckmann
  • Success or failure with breastfeeding - K Fahy, J Holschier
  • Development after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethene transplacentally and through human milk - B Gladen
  • Nursing interval and maternal responsivity: effect on early infant crying - R Barr

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Vol 1 No 14 May 1989

  • Adolescent views on breastfeeding: a descriptive survey - M Wolinski
  • Drugs and breastfeeding - R Batagol
  • The effect of diabetes on lactation - P Hult
  • Contanination of human milk - RS Belcher
  • Positioning, attachment and milk transfer - R Escott
  • Human imprinting and breastfeeding-are the textbooks deficient - EG Mobbs
  • Suppression of puerperal lactation using jasmine flowers - P Shrivastav, K George, N Balasubramaniam, MP Jasper, M Thomas, AS Kanagasbhapathy
  • How to evaluate breast pumps - M Walker

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Vol 1 No 13 November 1988

  • Papers of the International Lactation Conference
  • Speech to International Lactation Conference - N Swan
  • The history of breastfeeding to c.1920 - V Fildes
  • The subtlety of breast milk - Hartmann PE, Kent JC
  • Breastfeeding protects against infections and allergy - Hanson LA, Adlerberth I, Carlsson B, Castrignano SB, Hahn-Zoric M, Dahlgren U, Jalil F, Nilsson K, Roberton D
  • Breastfeeding, birth spacing and their effects on child survival - RV Short et al
  • Nutritional components in human milk - Hambraeus L
  • Breastfeeding: teaching the old art today - Naylor AJ, Wester RA
  • "Thallikool" - Mangleson J
  • What we don't know about breastfeeding - Renfrew MJ

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Vol 1 No 12 May 1988

  • Psychosomatic factors in the choice of infatn feeding-a pilot study - I Soo
  • Trace elements and human lactation - FJ Cumming JJ Fardy
  • A history of breastfeeding - J Smibert
  • Supporting breastfeeding of premature babies - W Nicholson
  • Stress-induced cessation of breastfeeding - RHA Ruvalcaba
  • Cool cabbage compresses - W Rosier
  • Recurring mastitis, increased sodium and chloride levels and unilateral breast refusal: A case study - KD Briggs
  • Putting the WHO code into practice: What can one person do? - G Walker
  • Infant colic, distress and crying - P Hewson, F Oberklaid, S Menahem

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Vol 1 No 11 November 1987

  • Cow's milk allergy in breast-fed infants: the role of allergen and maternal secretory IgA antibody - S Machtinger, R Moss
  • Action on the WHO Code - G Walker
  • AIDS and breastfeeding - M Townsend
  • Hormones mood and sexuality in lactating women - EM Alder, A Cook, D Davidson, C West, J Bancroft
  • Effect of early complementary feeds on lactation failure - I Lennon,B Lewis
  • Breastfeeding following reduction mammaplasty - J Flack
  • Unilateral failure of lactation after breast biopsy - TW Day
  • Evidence for a protective effect of lactation on the risk of breast cancer in young women - A McTiernan DB Thomas
  • Submission from the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia to the Inquiry into Medical Education and the Medical Workforce - H Leonard
  • Health care workers who breastfeed: implications for patient management - KB Auerbach, E Guss
  • Composition of early human milk of Kenyan mothers of preterm and term infants - JNS Jitta, RN Musoke, NO Bwibo, J Kioni
  • Nuclear medicine and the nusing mother - AJ Coakley, PJ Mountford

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Vol 1 No 10 May 1987

  • Pregnancy, lactation and contact lenses (letter) - AJ Hanks
  • Sleep/wake patterns of breast-fed infants in the first 2 years of life - MF Elias, NA Nicholson, C Bora,J Johnston
  • Human milk banking - AF Williams, C Fisher, V Greasley, H Traylor, W Woolridge, D Phil, JD Baum
  • Hospital breastfeeding protocols and conflicting advice - W Nicholson
  • Guidelines for drug therapy during lactation - JA Johnston Balkam
  • Growth factor concentrations and growth promoting activity in human milk following premature birth - LC Read, GL Francis JC Wallace, FJ Ballard
  • Breast feeding, fertility and child health: A review of international issues - MJ Houston
  • Breast milk lactoferrin levels in relation to maternal nutritional status - MR Houghton M Gracey, V Burke, C Bottrell, RM Spargo
  • Breast-milk jaundice - D Brooten, L Brown, A Hollingsworth, J Tanis, S Bakewell-Sachs

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Vol 1 No 9 November 1986

  • The effect of early feeding n the onset of symptoms in celiac disease - L Greco, M Mayer, M Grimaldi, D Follo, G de Ritis S Auricchio
  • Jaundice in full term healthy neonates- a population study - JE Clarkson,. JO Cowan, GP Herbison
  • Effect of supplemental fluids on human milk production - LB Dusdieker, BM Booth, PJ Stumbo,JM Eichenberger
  • Cracked nipples in breast feeding mothers- a randomised trial of three methods of management - W Nicholson
  • Infant physiology, nutritional requirements, and lactational adequacy - RG Whitehead
  • A comment on Dr Whitehead's article - PE Hartmann
  • The 'why ' and 'when' of introducing food to infants: growth in young breast-fed infants and some nutritional implications - MGM Rowland
  • The role of allergy in diarrhoea : Cow's milk protein allergy - JD Gryboski

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Vol 1 No 8 May 1986

  • Legal rights of breast-feeding mothers: USA scene - M Lofton, G Gotch
  • A comment on the Australian scene in relation to Section 7 'Divorce/ custody and visitation' - A Stark
  • Physiological basis of longitudinal changes in human milk yield and composition - PE Hartmann, CG Prosser
  • Training neonates to suck correctly - C Marmet, E Shell
  • Effective suckling and how to encourage it - M Mangelsdorf
  • Brastfeeding in infants with Down's syndrome - ME Aumonier, CG Cunningham
  • The growth of breast fed and artificially fed infants from birth to twelve months - NE Hitchcock, M Gracey, AI Gilmour
  • Immunological protection of neonatal gastrointestinal tract: the importance of breastfeeding - GV JAtsky IB Kuvaeva SG Gribakin
  • Development issues and the choice of feeding method of adolescent mothers - L Yoos

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Vol 1 No 7 November/ December 1985

  • Breastfeeding- A new understanding - PW Howie
  • Bonding-Obstetric fact or psychological fiction? - AJ Bowley
  • Chemical contaminants in human milk - AA Jensen
  • Facilities for working mothers to breastfeed children - V Phillips
  • Breastfeeding by employed mothers: a reasonable accomodation in the work place - AL Katcher, MG Lanese
  • Maternal employment and breastfeeding - KA Auerbach, E Guss
  • Slow weight gain in the breast-fed infant: management options - MD Stahl DA Guide

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Vol 1 No 6 August 1985

  • Breast milk feeding of sick babies - N Campbell
  • Human milk in the management of protracted diarrhoea of infancy - PI Mac Farlane, V Miller
  • Does the duration and frequency of early breastfeeding affect nipple pain? - M de Carvalho, S Robertson, MH Klaus
  • Lactation in Australian women - PE Hartmann, JK Kulski, S Rattigan, L Saint
  • The midwife-Help or hindrance? - RG Lipsett
  • Induced lactation in nulliparous adoptive mothers - KA Ryba, AE Ryba
  • Breastfeeding and sexual response - CE Kayner, JA Zagar
  • Individual patterns of milk intake during breastfeeding - MW Woolridge, JD Baum, RF Drewett
  • Developmental aspects of food sensitivity in childhood - T Foucard

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Vol 1 No 5 December 1984

  • Breastfeeding RV Short
  • Lactation in diabetic women - MJ Whichelow, MC Doddridge
  • Critical weight loss in breast fed infants - RE Olson (ed)
  • Breastfeeding: Attitudes and beliefs of an ACT sample of secondary school students - DJ Ellis
  • Do we support breastfeeding mothers? - DJ Ellis, RJ Hewat
  • Prevention of atopic disease in 'at risk newborns' by prolonged breastfeeding - L Businco, F Marchetti, G Pellegrini, A Cantani, R Perlini
  • Breastfeeding: the quiet revolution at the Queen Alexandra division of the Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart - S Cox
  • Bottle-fed infants are overdosed with fluorides - PRH Sutton
  • Breastfeeding and Oral contraceptives: Tasmanian survey - JF Coy CH Mair DA Ratkowsky
  • The psychology of breast-feeding - S Kitzinger
  • Breastfeeding at work and nursing facilities in public places - PA Field

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Vol 1No 4 June 1984

  • Costa Rica: Hospitals and health professionals promote breastfeeding
  • Bivariate analyses of attitudes toward breastfeeding - JJ Counsilman, EV MacKay, RM Copeland
  • Immunologic components in human milk during the second year of lactation - AS Goldman, RM Goldblum, C Garza
  • Observations on breastfeeding technique: facts and fallacies - AM Schlegel
  • Prophylaxis of atopic disease by six months' total solid food elimination - M Kajossari UM Saarinen
  • The role of antenatal oestrogen in post-partum human lactogenesis: evidence from oestrogen-deficient pregnancies - RH Martin RE Oakey
  • Breastfeeding and its promotion - LA Hanson, B Lindquist Y Hofvander, R Zetterstrom
  • Re-education in sucking technique- a case study - H Wilson
  • Release of oxytocin and prolactin in response to suckling - AS McNeilly, ICAF Robinson, MJ Houston PW Howie
  • Nutrition study of lactating mothers in metropolitan Sydney - SJ Stuckey, I Darnton-Hill, RK Gillies, AS Truswell
  • How much breast milk do babies need - RG Whitehead, AA Paul, TJ Cole
  • Food allergy: two common types as seen in breast and formula fed babies. - JW Gerrard, M Shenassa
  • The treatment of the asthmaticv mother during pregnancy and lactation - SL Spector

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Vol 1 No 3 November 1983

  • Cow's milk proteins cause infantile colic in breastfed infants: A double blind crossover study - I Jakobsson, T Lindberg
  • Supplementary water for breastfed babies in a hot and dry climate- not really a necessity - NM Goldberg, E Adams
  • The real problems adversely affecting breastfeeding in Australia - G Walker
  • A suggested role for precolostrum in preterm and sick newborn infants - DI Lewis-Jones, GJ Reynolds
  • Effect of breastfeeding status on prolactin secretion and resumption of menstruation - BA Gross, CJ Eastman
  • The influence of perinatal factors on breastfeeding - T Tamminen, P Verronen, S Saarikosi, A Gorannsson, H Tuomiranta
  • Effect of maternal fluorine intake on breastmilk fluorine content - S Esala, E Vuori, A Helle
  • Human milk banking S Lennox

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Vol 1 No 2 March 1983

  • Prolonged breastfeeding as prophylaxis for recurrent otitis media - UM Saarinen
  • Therapeutic ultrasound in post partum breast engorgement- clinical notes - M Shellshear
  • Breastfeeding: reasons for giving up and transient lactational crises - P Verronen
  • Mother milk and the Indonesian economy: A major national resource - JE Rohde
  • Supplementary feeding and jaundice in newborns - A Nicoll, R Ginsberg JH Tripp
  • NMAA as a self help organisation - V Phillips
  • Breastfeeding and dental health - W Sih
  • Design and evaluation of breastfeeding materials for medical students - DL Psiaki CM Olsen

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Vol 1 No 1 August 1982

  • Extraordinary lactation: Relactation /Induced lactation. - KG Auerbach
  • Concentrations of Ascorbic acid and vitamin A in lactating women using oral contraceptives. - F Cumming
  • Breastfeeding among the Chinese in four countries. - Tieh Hee Hai Guan Koh
  • Iron sufficiency with prolonged exclusive breastfeeding in Peruvian infants. - RA Pastel, PJ Howanitz, FA Oski
  • Breastfeeding by a mother with cystic fibrosis. - MJ Welch, DL Phelps, AB Osher
  • Infant feeding in developing countries: combating the multinationals imperative. - FC Steady
  • Medication and breastfeeding mothers. - H Endacott
  • Haemoglobin and heamatocrit levels in breastfed and bottlefed babies. - SS Hijazi, D Abdulatif, MS Tarawneh

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Page last Updated: 12/12/09